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SALAFIYAH. A reform movement founded by Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and Muhammad `Abduh at the turn of the twentieth century, the Salafiyah has religious, cultural, social, and political dimensions. It aimed at the renewal of Muslim life and had a formative impact on many Muslim thinkers and movements across the Islamic world.

The term salafiyah is often used interchangeably with islah (reform) and tajdid (renewal), which are fundamental concepts to Islam’s worldview. For some, however, the term connotes reaction and rigidness because of the Salafiyah’s strict adherence to the Qur’an and sunnah and its exaltation of the past.

The word salafiyah is derived from the Arabic root salaf, “to precede.” The Qur’an uses the word salaf to refer to the past (5.95, 8.38). In Arabic lexicons, the salaf are the virtuous forefathers (al-salaf al-sdlih), and the salafi is the one who draws on the Qur’an and the sunnah as the only sources for religious rulings (Almu’jam al-wash, vol. 1, p. 461).

The issue of who is considered a member of the salaf is a controversial one; however, most Muslim scholars agree that the salaf comprise the first three generations of Muslims. They span three centuries and include the companions of the Prophet, al-Sahabah, who end with Anas ibn Malik (d. AH 91/710 CE or 93/712); their followers, al-Tabi’in (180/796); and the followers of their followers, Tabi` al-Tabi`i (241/855). Ahmad ibn Hanbal (164-241/780-855) is considered the last of the generation of the salaf. These three generations were highly esteemed by later Muslims for their companionship with the Prophet and proximity to his time and for their pure understanding and practice of Islam and contribution to it.

The chronological definition of the salaf is not sufficient to explain the term fully. The salaf are not confined to a specific group nor to a certain era. Muslims recognize later prominent scholars and independent figures as members of the salaf, including Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (d. 1111), Ibn Taymiyah (d. 1328), Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyah (d. 1350), Muhammad ibn `Abd alWahhab (d. 1792), and others. Moreover, the views of the members of the earliest Muslim generations were varied. The ideological components of the Salafiyah changed over the years in response to the challenges the Muslim community faced as its dedication to reform and revival persisted.

Origins. As Muslims began to expand beyond the Arabian Peninsula, they came into direct contact with

different cultures, religions, and philosophical trends, among them Jews, Christians, Sabaeans, and Zoroastrians. They were also confronted with new situations and intellectual challenges for which they had to devise answers that reflected the ideals of the new faith. In addition to the Qur’an, they used rational thought to present and explain Islamic concepts and doctrines, applying this technique to such issues as the existence of God, the divine attributes, the nature of the Qur’an, and whether God is seen in paradise.

The violent conflicts that took place among Muslims over the caliphal succession following the death of `Uthman (d. 35/656) opened many controversies on such topics as the nature of faith, the status of the sinner, the nature of human acts, freedom and determination, and the imamate. Hence new intellectual currents and disciplines emerged within Islamic thought. Among the early developments was the discipline of kalam (theology). Its advocates addressed the aforementioned issues and resorted to subjective interpretations of the Qur’an, using analogy and philosophy. The major representatives of this trend were the Qadariyah, Jabriyah, Sifatiyah, Khawarij, and Mu’tazilah. Several of these schools, particularly the first two, gained popularity and created divisions among the ummah. Some of their views represented a threat to the orthodox understanding of the issue of tawhid (the unity of God), the core concept of Islam. They also gave rationalist thinking and theological discussions prominence over revelation.

Ibn Hanbal, Articulator of Classic Salafiyah. The diversity in opinions and fierce debate among the adherents of the theological schools gave rise to another intellectual trend that advocated a return by Muslims to pure and simple Islam and to the understanding of doctrine on the basis of the Qur’an, the sunnah, and the hadith traditions of the salaf. Ahmad ibn Hanbal, the founder of the fourth school of Sunni jurisprudence, was the major articulator of this trend. In his fight against the Mu’tazilah’s doctrine of the creation of the Qur’an, he laid out the tenets that later shaped the Salafiyah.

Ibn Hanbal’s thought focused on several principles. The first is the primacy of the revealed text over reason. Ibn Hanbal saw no contradiction between reason and scripture. Unlike the mutakallimun (scholastic theologians) who subjected the revealed text to reason, he dismissed ta’wil (subjective or esoteric interpretation) of the texts and explained them in accordance with Arabic philology, hadith, and the understanding of the Prophet’s companions and their successors. The second principle is the rejection of kalam. The Salafiyah considered the issues raised by the theological schools as bid’ah (innovation) and confirmed the orthodox view of these matters. The third is strict adherence to the Qur’an, the sunnah, and the consensus (ijma`) of the pious ancestors. In line with the major Sunni schools, Ibn Hanbal held the Qur’an and the teachings of the Prophet to be the authoritative sources for understanding the matters of religion, from which the principles of the shad `ah are derived. He set strict guidelines for the use of ijtihad (independent reasoning) and restricted the use of qiyds (analogical reasoning).

The Salafiyah approach evolved over the years to address new issues confronting the Muslim community. Tag! al-Din ibn Taymiyah, a follower of the Hanbali school, jurist, and theologian, contributed greatly to the evolution of the Salafiyah. He combated accretions and innovations in religious practices and beliefs, particularly those introduced by the Sufi orders (such as pantheism, syncretism, and saint-worship), and he criticized vehemently the different theological trends. His approach focused on confirming the creed of tawhid, proving the compatibility of reason and revelation, and refuting the ideological arguments of the theological schools, which he believed were influenced by Greek philosophy and terminology. Ibn Taymiyah regarded himself as a mujtahid within the Hanbali school, but as a result of changes in time and conditions, he departed from it in some respects: he rejected taqlid (adherence to tradition) and (ijma`) and approved of the use of qiyds, and also maintained his own views on several jurisprudential issues.

Because of its emphasis on the restoration of Islamic doctrines to their pure form, adherence to the Qur’an and sunnah, rejection of accretions, and maintaining the unity of the ummah, the Salafiyah has embodied the potential for reform and renewal, particularly at times of weakness and degeneration of the Muslim community. It has been a major influence on many movements that sought to reform their own communities on the basis of the original principles of Islam.

Premodern Salafiyah. In the eighteenth century several reform movements emerged to address the moral and social decay of the Muslim community. The Wahhabiyah is the most important. Its founder, Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Wahhab (1703-1792), drew on the teachings of Ibn Hanbal and Ibn Taymiyah in his drive to purify the Arabian Peninsula from un-Islamic practices and build an Islamic state modeled on that founded by the Prophet. The Wahhabiyah influenced other movements such as the Sanusiyah and Mahdiyah, notwithstanding their Sufi tendencies.

Similar movements surfaced beyond the Arab world, including the movement of Usuman Dan Fodio (17541817) in Nigeria, and the movements of Ahmad Sirhindi (1564-1624), Shah Wali Allah (1702-1762), and Sayyid Ahmad Barelwi (1786-1831) in the Indian subcontinent. They all advocated religious purification, moral and social reform, and unity among Muslims. However, they remained literalist in their reinterpretation of religion and tied to the past; they struggled not to build a viable model for the future but recreate the early model of the Prophet and his companions. Nonetheless, these movements left a legacy that inspired reform movements in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Modern Salafiyah. The modern Salafiyah was established by Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (1839-1897) and Muhammad `Abduh (1849-1905) at the turn of the twentieth century. Its prime objectives were to rid the Muslim ummah of a centuries-long mentality of taqlid (blind imitation) and jumud (stagnation), to restore Islam to its pristine form, and to reform the moral, cultural, and political conditions of Muslims. It is distinguished from the classic Salafiyah by its essentially intellectual and modernist nature and by the diversity and expanse of its objectives.

Against a legacy of stagnation, moral and social decay, political despotism, and foreign domination, the Salafiyah of Afghani and `Abduh sought to revitalize Islam, to bridge the gap between historical Islam and modernity, and to restore Muslim solidarity and vigor. The writings of Afghani and `Abduh-and of other reformist intellectuals such as `Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi (1854-1902), Muhammad Rashid Rida (1865-1935), and `Abd al-Hamid ibn Badis (1889-1940)-focused on certain issues that constituted the ideological foundations of the modern Salafiyah. Among these were the causes of Muslim weakness, the reinterpretation of Islam, and comprehensive and institutional reform.

The overwhelming supremacy of the West posed a dilemma for Muslim intellectuals, who probed the causes of Muslim weakness in an attempt to remedy them.

This issue has dominated the intellectual discourse of the reformist thinkers. It permeated the articles in Al`urwah al-wuthgd (published by Afghani and `Abduh in 1884 while in exile in Paris), Rida’s periodical Al-manor (1889-1935) the writings of al-Kawakibi (particularly Umm al-qurd), and those of Ibn Badis.

They identified the roots of the evil not in the teachings of Islam but rather in the infiltration of alien concepts and practices, the disintegration of the Muslim community, and the practice of political despotism. Distortion of basic Islamic beliefs spread attitudes of predeterminism, passivity, and submission among Muslims, leading to stagnation and blind imitation by the traditionalist `ulama’. They also precluded the advancement of Muslims and prevented them from pursuing power and independence. Thus they restricted the exercise of ijtihdd, the force that preserves the vitality of Islam and links it to real life.

In the face of the threat of cultural submission to Western colonialism, the Salafiyah worked to assert the validity of Islam in modern times and to prove its compatibility with reason and science. They viewed it as a holistic message covering all aspects of life and as the driving force for advancement. For them, Islam provides Muslims with the foundations of progress. It honors humans and asserts their sovereignty on earth; blesses Muslims with the creed of tawhid, and sanctions the pursuit of knowledge and progress (Afghani, 1973, pp. 136-139). Thus the reformist thinkers were trying to restore the pride of Muslims in their religion, to pave the way for reinterpreting Islam in a manner compatible with modernity, and to legitimize the acquisition of some Western scientific and technological achievements.

The reinterpretation of Islam constituted the second major principle of the modern Salafiyah. Like the classical thinkers, the modern Salafis emphasized the importance of tawhid (`Abduh, 1897), purifying the Muslims’ beliefs and practices from accretions, and restoring the unadulterated form of Islam. `Abduh summarized the objectives of the Salafiyah as follows: “To liberate thought from the shackles of taqlid and understand religion as it was understood by the elders of the community before dissension appeared; to return, in the acquisition of religious knowledge, to its first sources, and to weigh them in the scales of human reason” (cited in Hourani, 1962, pp. 140-141).

The modern reformers shared with classic Salafiyah the belief that the Qur’an was the uncreated word of God, and they rejected any esoteric interpretation of its verses. Although they sought a return to the authoritative sources of Islam-Qur’an, sunnah, and a few authentic hadith-the modern Salafiyah went a step further in their attempt to devise a synthesis between text and reason. They considered revelation and reason to be in full consonance; whenever there seemed to be a contradiction between the two, they employed reasoning to reinterpret the text. In particular, `Abduh’s and Ahmad Khan’s reinterpretations of some Qur’anic verses sometimes went beyond the orthodox interpretations. For `Abduh, “reason is the source of unshakable truth about the belief in God, His knowledge, and omnipotence and the belief in His message” (Islam and Christianity with Science and Modernity, Cairo, 1954, p. I13). The Islamic reformists were well versed in theology and philosophy and utilized them in their discourse.

In their commentaries on the Qur’an, the reformists tried to link the scriptures to modern-day conditions. This approach helped in reviving the Qur’anic message, restoring its relevance, and making it understandable to ordinary Muslims. It offered an alternative to the literalism of traditionalist interpretations. The reformists’ commentaries also suggested avenues for the renewal of Islamic disciplines and new approaches to jurisprudence, ethics, and law (Merad, 1960-, p. 147; Jurshi, 1991, pp. 212-213).

By emphasizing return to the fundamental sources of Islam, the Salafiyah thinkers aimed at unleashing the potential for exercising ijtihad. Their confidence in the ability of the Muslim mind to deal directly with revelation would eventually liberate Muslims from slavish obedience to traditionalist authorities. This, it was hoped, would give rise to a new jurisprudence and a positive rationalism that would eliminate the divisions among the different legal schools and draw on ijtihdd without compromising the fundamentals of Islam.

To achieve this ambitious objective, the Salafiyah, following the line of Ibn Taymiyah, emphasized the distinction between the immutable and the mutable in religion. The former deals with matters of creed and rituals (`ibadat), which have been prescribed in the Qur’an and the authentic sunnah; any additions to them were condemned as unacceptable innovation. The Salafis therefore launched fierce campaigns against the Sufi orders, accusing them of introducing bidah, practicing alien rituals, and spreading submissive and superstitious attitudes.

The mutable part of religion (mu’amalat) includes human transactions and laws governing social relationships. These were considered the domain of ijtihdd that ought to be exercised in line with the requirements of modernity and scientific advancement. Al-Kawakibi interpreted the Qur’anic statement, “Nothing have we omitted from the book” (6.38) as pertaining only to religious matters, not to worldly affairs. `Abduh issued several fatwas (legal opinions)-permitting Muslims to wear Western attire, eat meat slaughtered by Christians and Jews, and earn interest-that were considered departures from the traditionalist stand.

A third foundation of the modern Salafiyah is the comprehensive yet gradual nature of the reforms they proposed. Like most other Arab and Muslim countries, the Egyptian society in which the Salafiyah arose was already undergoing fundamental changes. Foreign laws had replaced supplemented indigenous laws; the educational system had bifurcated into Western and traditional; and the intellectual elite was split between advocates of the wholesale adoption of Western values and institutions and adherents to long-held traditions and practices.

The Salafiyah hoped to bridge the gaps within their respective societies by introducing sweeping reforms at the individual and institutional levels. Education was the cornerstone of their reform plan. The Salafiyah were convinced that no reform would be effective unless the moral and social values of Muslims were revived by education. They aspired to educate a new type of elite, combining Islamic and modern education, to close the gap between the conservatives and the westernized. They worked on restructuring the educational system and modernizing the curricula in traditional educational institutions, as well as establishing new schools that offered both Islamic and modern subjects.

Pertinent to the improvement of education was the reform of the Arabic language. As a result of an overall state of stagnation and imitation, the Arabic language had suffered for centuries from rigidity and artificial style. The reform of the language was intended to revive it and to liberate it from classical forms so that it could be easily understood and absorb modern terminology. The Salafiyah in the Arab world hoped thus to preserve their national identity and contain the spread of foreign languages.

The reform of law was another important aspect in the reformists’ efforts to revitalize Islam. The Salafiyah reformers maintained that law should reflect the “spirit” of the nation, its dominant values and belief system. Imported or foreign law could never strike deep roots because it would always lack consensual acceptance and therefore legitimacy. Islamic shati` `ah should continue to regulate the legal and social affairs of Muslims. However, the reformers rejected the literal interpretation of law and advocated its reinterpretation on the basis of reason, magdfd (objectives), and maslahah (common good), particularly in areas where there was no Qur’anic stipulation. On the institutional level, they directed efforts toward establishing specialized schools for shad `ah judges, or reforming the existing ones, and to reforming the shari`ah courts.

The Salafiyah viewed political reform as an essential requirement for the revitalization of the Islamic community. They denounced despotism and held autocratic rulers responsible for the spread of acquiescent political attitudes and the disintegration of the Muslim nation. Salafi intellectuals advocated a gradualist plan for political reform. They were convinced that political reform could not be achieved unless the people were educated about their rights and responsibilities.

Many reformist intellectuals attempted to reformulate Islamic concepts in the light of modern political ideals and practices. They reinterpreted such concepts as shura (counsel) and ijma` (consensus) and equated them with democracy and a parliamentary system. In practice, they called for gradually increasing representation in administrative and political institutions.

European colonialism and the threat of cultural subjugation gave the modern Salafiyah a strong nationalist tone. The reformers, perhaps with the exceptions of `Abduh after his return to Egypt from exile in 1888 and of Ahmad Khan, maintained an anticolonialist stance. They tried to promote a common awareness of Islamic nationalism and to preserve the solidarity of the ummah, advocating Pan-Islamism and the restoration of a form of political nucleus. Nonetheless, most of them had to compromise their idealist position to meet the realities of their time, accepting the imposed national divisions of the Muslim world.

Spread of Salafiyah. The teachings of the Salafiyah spread across the Arab and larger Muslim world, and wherever it took root, the Salafiyah acquired different expressions and emphasis. In Algeria, Ibn Badis focused his reform efforts on education as the means for countering the assimilationist policy of the French and preserving national identity, and on combating the Sufi orders. He produced a commentary on the Qur’an, and with other reformist religious scholars he established the Association of Algerian `Ulama’, which played a prominent role in the struggle for independence.

Morocco had been exposed to the teachings of the Wahhabiyah since the eighteenth century. A neoSalafiyah movement with a modernist orientation emerged in the nineteenth century under such reformist scholars as Abu Shu’ayb al-Dukkali (1878-1937) and Muhammad ibn al-`Arabi al-`Alawi (1880-1964). Their ideas had a profound formative impact on many leaders of the Moroccan nationalist movements, notably `Allal al-Fasi, the leader of the Istiqlal Party and a student of al-`Alawi. Al-Fasi took the Salafiyah to new levels by linking Islamic reformism to the nationalist movement for independence and political liberalism.

The Salafiyah was introduced in Tunisia in the early years of the twentieth century; `Abduh visited in 1885 and again in 1903, and Al-manor was read there. The Salafi ideals were adopted by several Zaytuni Wamd’, including Bashir Safar (d. 1937), a teacher of Ibn Badis; Muhammad al-Their ibn `Ashur (b. 1879), who produced a commentary on the Qur’an; and his son Muhammad al-Fadil ibn `Ashur (1909-1970). `Abd al-`Aziz al Tha’alibi (1879-1944), the founder of the Destour Party, was an advocate of the Salafiyah and Islamic reform.

Islamic modernists also emerged in Syria. Some were influenced by the Hanbali orientation, such as Jamal alDin al-Qasimi (1866/67-1914); others were disciples of Afghani and `Abduh, such as `Abd al-Qadir al-Maghribi (1867-1956) and Shakib Arslan (1869-1946).

In India, Sayyid Ahmad Khan (1817-1898) founded a movement of Islamic modernism that had a profound impact on reform among Indian Muslims. Though a contemporary of Afghani and `Abduh, Ahmad Khan was distinguished by his acceptance of British rule, by his reinterpretation of the Qur’an with a far more rationalist and naturalist approach than most Salafi intellectuals, and by his promotion of Western education through the educational institutions and journals he established. Another prominent Muslim modernist in India was Muhammad Iqbal (1875-1938); Combining Islamic and Western education, he attempted to reconstruct an Islamic intellectual model that would revive the Muslim community and address modern needs.

The Salafiyah principles also spread to Indonesia. In 1912, the reformist Muhammadiyah movement was established there as an educational and cultural organization that attracted a wide following.

Following the death of Afghani and `Abduh, with a dearth of comparable thinkers, the course of the reformist Salafiyah began to change. Muhammad Rashid Rida represented a link between the reformist Salafiyah of Afghani and `Abduh and the activist Muslim Brothers in Egypt. He continued to propagate the ideas of his mentors as well as his own in his periodical Al-manor, which had considerable influence on many Muslim intellectuals (known as the Manarists) throughout the Islamic world. Under increasing threats of political disintegration and cultural submission, Rashid Rida drew the movement into more conservative and orthodox paths. The liberal and secular disciples of the reformist thinkers benefited from the rationalist approach of the Salafiyah in advancing secular nationalism and liberalism, as in the cases of Sa’d Zaghlul in Egypt and Mohammad Ali Jinnah in India.

Influence on Modem Islamic Movements. The teachings of the Salafiyah continued to inspire later generations of Muslim activists. In the 1930s new Islamic movements emerged sharing many of the ideas of the Salafiyah. The most influential of these were Hasan alBanna’s (1906-1949) Muslim Brothers in Egypt and Abfi al-A’la Mawdudi’s (1903-1979) Jamd’at-i Islami in the Indian subcontinent.

These movements too upheld the centrality of Islam to future progress and were convinced of its adaptability to modern life. However, they responded to different circumstances: continued Western occupation, anticolonial struggle, and the domination of secular political and social concepts. They therefore combined activism (harakiyah) with their message of Islamic reform. They were more skeptical and critical of the West, and, while accepting modernity, they believed in the selfsufficiency of Islam as the basis for society and state (Esposito, 1991, pp. 152-160). They did not attempt to build on the intellectual venture the modern Salafiyah had undertaken in legal, political, educational reform, or to devise a systematic intellectual framework for reform. Instead, through their organizational structures and populist appeal, these movements focused on reforming the morality and beliefs of the Muslim individual as a precondition for the reform of the society as a whole. The Muslim Brothers and the Jama’at became an example for many subsequent movements; however, their ideological orientation, activism, and sometimes militant tendency distinguish them from the modern Salafiyah.Currently there are some groups and societies in the Muslim world known as al-Jama’ah al-Salafiyah or alSalafiyun. They have more in common with the classic Salafiyah than with the modernist thought of Afghani and `Abduh. Like the classic Salafiyah, they focus on matters of creed and morality, such as strict monotheism, divine attributes, purifying Islam from accretions, anti-Sufism, and developing the moral integrity of the individual (`Abd al-Khaliq, 1975; Ibn Bakr, 1990). These societies, however, remain very limited in following and in the extent of the reforms they propose.

Conclusion. The Salafiyah has taken different forms and expressions owing to changing conditions; however, throughout its different phases it has remained in essence a movement for reform and renewal. The classic or Hanbali Salafiyah, to which several premodern reform movements belong, focused on issues of creed, the purity of Islam, and the restoration of a past Islamic model, and so it remained doctrinal and limited in its scope of reform.

While emphasizing the need to return to original Islam, the modern Salafiyah expanded the dimensions of reform to counter the threat of European colonialism and to accommodate the needs of modernity. While often criticized for being apologetic and conciliatory, they were nonetheless able to demonstrate to their coreligionists the adaptability of Islam and its relevance in modern times. Their intellectual efforts provided grounds for accepting and legitimizing change.

Despite its significant contribution to the revival of Islamic thought and noticeable impact on generations of Muslim intellectuals and activists, the modern Salafiyah stopped short of devising a solid framework for reform on which later followers could build systematically. Therefore, the continuation of the Salafiyah reformist message has depended on the individual efforts of Muslim intellectuals.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

`Abd al-Khaliq, `Abd al-Rahman. Al-Usul al-`ilmiyah lil-da’wah alSalafiyah. Cairo, 1975. Example of the ideological orientation of the contemporary Salafiyah.

`Abduh, Muhammad. Risalat al-tawhid. Cairo, 1897. Translated by Ishaq Musa’ad and Kenneth Cragg as The Theology of Unity. London, 1966. Series of lectures on theology delivered at al-Madrasah al-Sultaniyah while in exile in Beirut.

`Abduh, Muhammad. Al-Islam wa-al-Nasraniyah ma’a al-`ilm wa-almadaniyah (1905). Cairo, 1954. Excellent source for `Abduh’s intellectual arguments on various issues.

Abun-Nasr, Jamil M. “The Salafiyya Movement in Morocco: The Religious Bases of the Moroccan Nationalist Movement.” In St. Antony’s Papers, no. 16, Middle Eastern Affairs, no. 3, edited by Albert Hourani, pp. 90-105. London, 1963.

Afghani, Jamal al-Din al-. “Risalat al-Radd `ala al-Dahriyyin” (A Response to the Naturalists). In Al-thd’ir al-Islami Jamal al-Din alAfghani, edited by Muhammad `Abduh. Cairo, 1973. Al-Afghani wrote this refutation in 1879 while in India, as a response to the threatened spread of materialist ideas.

Am-in, Ahmad. Zu’ama’ al-isldh ft al-`asr al-hadith (The Leaders of Reform in the Modern Time). 4th ed. Cairo, 1979. Detailed biographies and study of several reformist intellectuals.

Am-in, `Uthman. Muhammad `Abduh. Translated by Charles Wendell. Washington, D.C., 1953. Good introduction to `Abduh’s life and thought.

Buti, Muhammad Said Ramadan al-. Al-Salafiyah: Marhalah zamaniyah mubdrakah, la madhhab Islami (Al-Salafiyah: A Blessed Period, Not an Islamic Doctrinal School). Damascus, 1988. Thorough study on the evolution and intellectual components of the Salafiyah. Commins, David Dean. Islamic Reform: Politics and Social Change in Late Ottoman Syria. New York, 1990. Excellent analysis of Islamic reformism in Syria in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. Esposito, John L. Islam: The Straight Path. Exp. ed. New York, 1991. Well-written introduction to Islam and contemporary developments in the Muslim world.

Fakhry, Majid. A History of Islamic Philosophy. 2d ed. New York, 1983. Excellent reference for the Muslim philosophical and theological schools.

Hourani, Albert. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age, 1798-1939 London, 1962. Chapters on Afghani, `Abduh, and Rashid Rida provide detailed background and analysis of their life and views.

Hilmi, Mustafa. Al-Salafiyah bayna al-`aqidah al-Isldmiyah wa-alfalsafah al-Gharbiyah. Alexandria, 1991. Discusses the Salafiyah from Western and Islamic perspectives, its objectives and role.

Ibn Bakr, Abu Yusuf. Muhddarat ft al-Salafiyah (Lectures on Salafiyah). Shibin al-Koum, Egypt, 1990. Sample of the intellectual orientation of contemporary Salafiyah.

`Imarah, Muhammad. Tayydrat al-fikr al-Islami (The Trends of Islamic Thought). Cairo, 1982. Overview of the classic Islamic intellectual schools.

`Imarah, Muhammad. Tayyarat al -yaqazah al-Isldmiyah al-hadithah (The Trends of the Modern Islamic Awakening). Cairo, 1982. Overview of the Islamic reformist movements and modernist intellectual trends.

Jabiri, Muhammad `Abid al-. “Al-harakah al-Salafiyah wa-al-Jama’ah al-diniyah al-mu’asirah fi al-Maghrib” (The Salafiyah Movement and the Contemporary Religious Community in Morocco). In Alharakah al-Isldmiyah al-mu’asirah ft al-Watan al-`Arabi, pp. 187235. Beirut, 1989.

Jurshi, Salah al-Din al-. “Al-ta’thirat al-Salafiyah fi al-tayyarat alIslamiyah al-mu’asirah” (The Influence of the Salafiyah on Contemporary Islamic Trends). Ishkaliyat al-fikr al-Islami (Islamic World Studies Center), no. 1 (1991): 203-230.

Kerr, Malcolm H. Islamic Reform: The Political and Legal Theories of Muhammad `Abduh and Rashid Ridd. Berkeley, 1966. Thorough analysis of `Abduh’s and Rashid Rida’s legal thought.

Khadduri, Majid. Political Trends in the Arab World: The Role of Ideas and Ideals in Politics. Baltimore, 1970. See pages 65-69.

Merad, ‘Ali, et al. “Islah.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, new ed., vol. 4, pp. 141-171. Leiden, 196o-.

Al-mu jam al-wash. 3d ed. Cairo, n.d. See volume 1, page 461. Shak’ah, Mustafa al-. Al-Islam bi-ld madhdhib (Islam without Doctrinal Sectarianism). 5th ed. Cairo, 1976. Excellent study of Islamic sects, theological and intellectual schools.

`Uthman, Fathi. Al-Salaftyah ft al-mujtama’at al-mu’asirah (The Salaflyah in Contemporary Societies). [Cairo, 1982?] Focuses on the Wahhabi movement and its influence on later Muslim thinkers and movements.

EMAD ELDIN SHAHIN

Azhar Niaz Article's Source: http://islamicus.org/salafiyah/
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