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Muhammad Iqbal Allama

Sir Muhammad Iqbal (Urdu: محمد اقبال ‎) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938), widely known as Allama Iqbal (علامہ اقبال), was a poet, philosopher, and politician, as well as an academic, barrister and scholar in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement. He is called the "Spiritual father of Pakistan". He is considered one of the most important figures in Urdu literature, with literary work in both the Urdu and Persian languages. ...more

ITTIHAD-I MUHAMMADI CEMIYETI

ITTIHAD-I MUHAMMADI CEMIYETI. A political and religious organization was founded around the newspaper Volkan (Volcano) in February I9o9 by Hafiz Dervis Vahdeti, a Naqshbandi from Cyprus. Named Ittihad-i Muhammadi Cemiyeti (Muhammadan Union), it is known for its role in the insurrection of April I9o9 in Istanbul that aimed to destroy the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP). Conservative forces in the Ottoman Empire had been alarmed by the winds of change that blew through the capital after t ...more

ITHNA ASHARIYAH

ITHNA ASHARIYAH. The followers of the twelve imams regarded as the rightful successors of the Prophet, the Ithna `Ashariyah, or Twelvers, constitute the major subdivision within Shi’i Islam. The Ithna `Ashariyah are also known as Imamiyah because of their main tenet regarding the necessity of the imam for the establishment of the ideal Muslim community under divine revelation. The term Shi'ah is generally applied to the Twelvers, despite the fact that there are other factions, such as the Ismd ...more

ISTIQLAL

ISTIQLAL. The leading Moroccan nationalist party in the period 1943-1962, the Istiqlal (Hizb al-Istiqlal, "Independence party") was founded in December 1943 by Ahmad Balafrej and a group of younger Moroccan nationalists drawn from the urban bourgeoisie of Fez, Rabat, Tangier, and Tetouan. Together with King Muhammad V, Istiqlal played a major role in bringing about the end of the French and Spanish protectorates in March 1956. From the outset, the movement drew both on currents of Islamic ref ...more

ISRAEL

ISRAEL. In 1992 the Arab minority in Israel numbered approximately 914,000, or 18.5 percent of the total Israeli population (the figures include the Arab residents of East Jerusalem, estimated at 146,ooo, but not of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip). Seventy-seven percent of the Arab minority (704,000) were Muslim, while the rest were Christian (14 percent or 128,ooo) and Druze (9 percent or 82,000). ...more

ISMAILIYAH

ISMAILIYAH. The Shi movement called the Isma'iliyah, with a number of widely differing subsects, deeply influenced Islamic intellectual life in the tenth through thirteenth centuries. It is quite separate from the majority sect of Shi-I Muslims, the Twelvers or Imamis. The origins and early history of the Isma'I1lyah are obscure. Following the death in 765 CE of the sixth Shl'! imam, Ja`far al-Sadiq, some of his followers insisted that his son Isma`Il, whom Ja'far had named his successor but ...more

ISLAMIC STUDIES

ISLAMIC STUDIES. [This entry comprises two articles. The first presents a history of the study of Islam from its origins to the present, emphasizing scholarship in the West; the second provides a critical analysis of methods developed in Western academies to study Islam as a religion, a civilization, and a culture.]   History of the Field Islamic studies arose in the ninth century in Iraq, when the religious sciences of Islam began to take their present shape and t ...more

ISLAMIC STATE

ISLAMIC STATE. Although the original Islamic sources (the Qur'an and the hadiths) have very little to say on matters of government and the state, the first issue to confront the Muslim community immediately after the death of its formative leader, the prophet Muhammad, in 632 CE was in fact the problem of government and of how to select a successor, khalifah (caliph), to the Prophet. From the start, therefore, Muslims had to innovate and to improvise with regard to the form and nature of governm ...more

ISLAMIC FOUNDATION

ISLAMIC FOUNDATION. Established in 1973, the aims of the Islamic Foundation are to encourage research into the implementation of Islam in the modern world, to project the image of Islam in Britain and Europe, and to meet the educational needs of Muslims, especially young people. To implement these objectives, the foundation works with young people and publishes research, especially in economics and about issues of Islam in the modern world, Christian-Muslim relations, and Muslim Central Asia. ...more

ISLAMIC DEVELOPMENT BANK

ISLAMIC DEVELOPMENT BANK. The Islamic Development Bank is a unique aid institution, as all its funding is on an interest-free basis using financing techniques which are permissible under sharI `ah. It is a development assistance agency rather than a charity or a commercial bank, but, given that overheads are not fully covered, there is an element of subsidy in much of its funding. The paid-up capital in early 1993 of over two billion Islamic dinars was provided entirely by the governments of the ...more

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