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SUAVI, ALI

SUAVI, ALI (1839-1878), a popular reformist figure of the nineteenth-century Ottoman Empire. Suavi exemplifies the ideas of conservative Ottomans who were drawn into a struggle for the expression of the popular will. Although trained in the modern educational system of the rusdiy ...more

Afghan Mujahidin

Afghan Mujahidin The Afghan Mujahidin are guerrilla fighters who formed their groups in opposition to the communist government after the April 1978 coup. The Mujahidin movement is divided into an array of political parties, each following a different set of ideological, ethnic, clientelist, and sectarian loyalties. The first cleavage among the parties is based on ideological commitment: the Islamists advocate an Islamic revolution, and the "moderates," although committed also to the implement ...more

ABBAS, SHAH

Shāh 'Abbās the Great (or Shāh 'Abbās I) (Persian: شاه عَباس بُزُرگ‎) (27 January 1571 – 19 January 1629) was the 5th Safavid Shah (king) of Iran, and generally considered the greatest ruler of the Safavid dynasty. He was the third son of Shah Mohammad. ...more

IBRAHIM, ANWAR

IBRAHIM, ANWAR (born 10 August 1947), Malaysian Muslim activist, thinker, and politician. Anwar was born at Cerok Tok Kun, Bukit Mertajam, Penang; both his parents were active in the United Malays National Organization (UMNO). He received a secular education and also, like most Malay children of the time, studied religion in the afternoon. While at the prestigious MalayCollege in Kuala Kangsar, Perak (1960-1966), Anwar became noted as an interscholastic debater and a school captain. He was also ...more

Abdumalik Bahori

Abdumalik Bahori (March 22.1927-Dec.3 ,2010)was children poet and the first Tajik fiction writer. He was born in the middle-class family who worked in the field of silk producing industry. He graduated Leninabad Pedagogical Institute known Khujand State University in 1946 Bahori was a writer who predicted cell phones and possible cloning of human. Dili beqaror - Дили беқарор 1962 Qarzi juragi - Қарзи ҷӯрагӣ Ajoiboit Noda ...more

AHMAD RAZA KHAN BARELVI

Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi, (14 June 1856 CE or 10 Shawwal 1272 AH – 28 October 1921 CE or 25 Safar 1340 AH), popularly known as Aala Hazrat. His father was Naqi Ali Khan, and his great-grandfather Shah Kazim Ali Khan was a noted Sunni scholar. Ahmed's mother named him Amman Miyān. Raza Khan used the appellation "Abdul Mustafa" (slave [or servant] of Mustafa) prior to signing his name in correspondence. He studied Islamic sciences and completed a tradition ...more

AL- AZHAR

AL-AZHAR.  Situated in the heart of premodern Cairo, al-Azhar is the greatest mosque-university in the world today. Reluctantly adjusting to modern times over the last century, the millennium-old Azhar remains a focal point of Islamic religious and cultural life for Egypt and the entire Islamic world. ...more

AZERBAIJAN

AZERBAIJAN. Northern or Caucasian Azerbaijan is situated on the western shore of the Caspian Sea. Conquered by the Russian Empire early in the nineteenth century, it remained under Russian rule until the collapse of that empire in 1918. The first Republic of Azerbaijan existed from 28 May 1918 until 28 April 1920, when it was reconquered by the Red Army. The country remained under Soviet rule as the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic until declaring its independence on 3o August 1991. [capt ...more

AZAD, ABU AL-KALAM

AZAD, ABU AL-KALAM (1888-1958), Urdu journalist and stylist, Islamic thinker, and religious universalist symbolizing the Muslim option for composite Indian nationalism. Mawlana Azad was born in Mecca, where his father Khairuddin Dihlawi (1831-19o8) had migrated in 1858 and later married the daughter of a mufti of Medina. The ancestors of Azad had intellectual and spiritual links with Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi (d. 1624), Shah Wali Allah Dihlawi (d. 1762), and Shah `Abd al-`Aziz (d. 1824). Khairuddin ...more

AYATOLLAH.

AYATOLLAH. Derived from the terms dyat (sign, testimony, miracle, verses of the Qur'an) and Allah (God), ayatollah ("sign of God"), is an honorific title with hierarchical value in Twelver Imamite Shiism, bestowed by popular usage on outstanding mujtahids, with reference to Qur'an 41.53. The sense of this title can be traced to the need for legitimacy sought by the Shi`i `ulama' during the absence of the twelfth imam, the Master of the Age, in the end of the greater occultation, from 94o to the ...more

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