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QADHDHAFI, MU`AMMAR AL

Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi(June 7, 1942  – 20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He governed Libya as Revolutionary Chairman of the Libyan Arab Republic from 1969 to 1977 and then as the "Br ...more

HEKMATYAR, GULBUDDIN

HEKMATYAR, GULBUDDIN (b. 1947?), leader of Hizb-i Islam! Afghanistan, one of the major Islamic political parties in Afghanistan. Hekmatyar is a Pushtun from a branch of the Kharoti tribe that resettled in the northern province of Kunduz. While a student in the College of Engineering at Kabul University in the late 1 960s, Hekmatyar became one of the founders of the Organization of Muslim Youth (Sazman-i Javanan-i Musulman). Inspired by the writings of Sayyid Qutb and other Islamic political theo ...more

GULF STATES.

GULF STATES. Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates stand at the intersection of several major currents in contemporary Islamic affairs. The 1978-1979 revolution in Iran inspired the sizable Shi'i communities of Bahrain and Kuwait to become much more active in their respective political arenas; this event, however, provoked little if any sympathy among the Shi`ah of the United Arab Emirates, while the predominantly Muwahhidin population of Qatar remained heavily influenced by the r ...more

GUILDS

GUILDS once played a decisive role in the life of Arab cities in various ways: economically, they controlled production and trade; socially, they provided a framework for the active population (which is to say, most of the population, with the exception of the ruling class, usually dominated by foreigners); and finally, in the absence of specialized urban agencies, guilds were one of the entities that permitted cities to function. Given the aforementioned factors, it is all the more striking ...more

GUARDIANSHIP

GUARDIANSHIP. The term walayah (guardianship) literally means having "contiguity to something." The root is frequently found in Islamic religious thought: walis are "proteges" of God, or saints; the wali is the guardian of a minor or the member of a family deputed to act on his or her behalf; a tribal client is a mawla; and wali is also a straightforward political term, usually translated as "governor" or "regent."

The term is particularly important in Twelver Shi'i) 1 political theor ...more

GROUPEMENT ISLAMIQUE EN FRANCE

GROUPEMENT ISLAMIQUE EN FRANCE. In the 1980s Islam came to the center of political debates in France and in Europe generally. Many organizations were established by Muslim intellectuals or students of Arab origin in order to awaken Islamic feelings among adults and ensure the religious education of children. In some neighborhoods where North African immigrant families are concentrated, housing projects or residences for immigrants have come to be used for collective prayers or Qur'anic classes. ...more

GREAT BRITAIN

GREAT BRITAIN. Once the source of a great Christian out-migration to the colonies of the British Empire, the British Isles have in return become the home of significant numbers of Muslim immigrants from the former colonies. In 1991 there were between 1.25 and 1.5 million British residents of Muslim background. History. Apart from a few individuals, Muslims only begin to settle in Britain to any significant extent as a result of British colonial expansion in India. During the late eighteenth a ...more

GOVERNMENT

GOVERNMENT. See Hukumah. ...more

GOKALP, MEHMET ZIYA

GOKALP, MEHMET ZIYA (c. 1875-1924), Turkish social scientist, writer, and nationalist. Born in Diyarbakir to a family of mixed Turkish and Kurdish origins, Mehmet Ziya attended the Imperial Veterinary School (1896) at Istanbul, where he joined the revolutionary Committee of Union and Progress (CUP). He was dismissed from the school, arrested, and jailed when his affiliation with the CUP was discovered by the secret police in 1897. After his release from prison, he returned to his native city and ...more

GIROGAN

GIROGAN. See Hostages. ...more

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