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PESANTREN. A type of school in Southeast Asia offering second-level training in Islamic subjects is termed pesantren on Java, surau on Sumatra, pondok on the Malay Peninsula, and pandita ("school") in the Philippines. Pesantren derives from the sixteenth century, when learning centers known as the "place of learning for the Islamic faithful (santris)," were established. Surau was a place for worship in early Southeast Asia, while pondok derives from the travelers' inns (Ar., funduq) of the Middl ...more


EDUCATION. [To explore the dimensions of education in the modern Islamic world, this entry comprises five articles: Religious Education Educational Institutions Educational Methods Educational Reform, The Islamization of Knowledge The introductory article provides an overview of the role and function of religious education in Muslim community life: the four complementary articles provide details on educational practices, theori ...more

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