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Pervez Amir Ali Hoodbhoy born 11 July 1950) is a Pakistani nuclear physicist, mathematician and activist who serves as distinguished professor at the Forman Christian College and previously taught physics at the Quaid-e-Azam University. Hoodbhoy is also a pro ...more


PURIFICATION. A hadith states, "Purity is half of faith." This terse statement related from the prophet Muhammad underlines the importance of purity and purification in the Islamic tradition. The fundamental notion of purity is also reflected in the Islamic concept of fitrah (human nature). One famous hadith enumerates the following elements of fitrah: circumcision, removing hair from under the armpits and pubic area, pairing the nails, proper cleanliness, and perfuming oneself. Each of these ac ...more


Pardah is a religious and social practice of female seclusion prevalent among some Muslimand Hindu communities in South Asia. It takes two forms: physical segregation of the sexes and the requirement that women cover their bodies so as to cover their skin and conceal their form. A woman who practices purdah can be referred to as pardanashin or purdahnishan. Physical segregation within buildings is achieved with judicious use of walls, curtains, and screens. A woman's withdrawal into ...more


PUBLIC LAW. Concerned with the distribution and exercise of power by the state and the legal relations between the state and the individual, public law in the West is distinct from private law, which is concerned with the legal relationship between individuals. In Islamic law, the categories of public law and private law overlap, as some public law is civil and some happens to be criminal. On the whole, the primary purpose of Islamic public law provisions is the promotion of social objectives an ...more


PUBERTY RITES. There is no specific Islamic ritual to mark the onset of puberty; Nevertheless, Muslims celebrate certain rituals to mark the initiation of sexuality, adulthood, and membership in the community. Following the work of Arnold van Gennep (196o), these rituals are usually considered Islamic "rites of passage." Rituals such as circumcisions and weddings are puberty rites in that the ceremonies in some way signal the end of childhood and the initiation into culturally and religiously de ...more


PROPERTY Islam considers the property as a gift from God. As-Sibâ'î argue that Islam does not justify the existence of poverty, with reference to the Prophet Muhammad, "Poverty is almost brought people to the denial of Islam (kufr)." The Prophet also used to pray: "O Allah, protect and help me to avoid the incompetence and laziness, fear and greed; protect and help me to avoid poverty, infidelity and bad behavior." O God, my hope would you give me directions to y ...more


Salah " prayer" called namāz is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim. It is a physical, mental, and spiritual act of worship that is observed five times every day at prescribed times. In this ritual, the worshiper starts standing, bows, prostrates them self, and concludes while sitting on the ground. During each posture, the worshiper recites or reads certain verses, phrases and prayers. The word salah is commonly translated as "prayer" ...more


Early Islamic pottery followed the forms of the regions which the Muslims conquered. Eventually, however, there was cross-fertilization between the regions. This was most notable in the Chinese influences on Islamic pottery. Trade between China and Islam took place via the system of trading posts over the lengthy Silk Road. Islamic nations imported stoneware and later porcelain from China. China imported the minerals for Cobalt blue from the Islamic ruled Persia to decorate their blue and white ...more


POPULATION GROWTH. See Family Planning.   High population growth rates over the past forty years coupled with worries about economic and social development have spurred debate on the use of family planning measures by Muslims ...more

Popular Religion in Europe and the Americas

Popular Religion in Europe and the Americas Local Muslim belief and practice in non-Muslim countries reflect the historical experience of the community and the larger cultural environment within which it lives. Conversion and migration throughout the twentieth century have resulted in about eleven or twelve million Muslims living in Europe and America (the Muslim population figures tend to be estimates because of illiteracy, misunderstanding, and concealment of identity for fear of becoming e ...more

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