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CUSTOMS. See Adat; 'Urf. ...more


CUMHURIYET HALK PARTISI. A major political organisation inTurkeyfor sixty years the Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi (Republican People's Party or CHP) was founded some weeks before the proclamation of the Republic (II September 1923). After the military coup of 198o, its activities were stopped together with those of other political parties by the junta; it was formally terminated on 16 October 1982 by decision of the National Security Council. The CHP held dictatorial single-party rule until 1946 an ...more


CRIMINAL LAW. The body of law dealing with wrongs that are punishable by the state with the object of deterrence is known as criminal law. Islamic criminal law recognizes three categories of these wrongs. The first is the hudud (plural of #add or "limit" set by God), the contravention of which leads to a prescribed and mandatory penalty. The second, ta`zir, comprises those crimes not included among the hudud because their punishment is discretionary. The term ta'zir means chastisement and intend ...more


CRIMEA KHANATE. Comprising most of the Crimean peninsula and some of the Desht-i Kipchak (the steppeland north of the peninsula and theBlack Sea), the Khanate of Crimea was established in the middle of the fifteenth century by Muslim Tatars and Turks. Muslims had been present in the region from the early thirteenth century, and Muslim institutions including mosques and schools had been built by 1315. Anatolian Turks settled in the peninsula under Seljuk encouragement, and Tatars from the Golden ...more


CREEDS. See `Aqidah. ...more


COSMOLOGY. In Islamic cosmology, the cosmos or the universe (al-`alam) is defined generally as "everything other than God." This definition, universally accepted in Islam, has its basis in the Qur'an. It is emphasized repeatedly in the Qur'an that God is "lord of all the worlds" and that to God belongs "everything in the heavens and the earth" and "what is in between." The sum total of "everything other than God," which constitutes the entire Muslim cosmos, is identified with what the Qur'an ref ...more


CORDOBA, CALIPHATE OF. In AH 138/756 CE, after the fall of the Umayyad dynasty inDamascus, `Abd al-Rahman I ibn Mu'awiyah, an Umayyad prince, established himself inCordobaas ruler of theIberian Peninsula(al-Andalus). The country thus achieved independence from the `Abbasid caliphate ofBaghdad, although the name of the `Abbasid caliph, al-Mansur, continued for a time to be mentioned in the Friday prayer; when the name of the Umayyad leader was substituted, the `Abbasid caliph was cursed. The Umay ...more


CONVERSION. In one of the first divine revelations recorded in the Qur'an, the prophet Muhammed was commanded by God to "arise and warn!" (74.1). This is taken by some Muslim scholars to signal the beginning of public preaching of the message, which until then was presumably done privately among the Prophet's family and intimate friends. Hence, almost from the very outset, Islam was to be a proselytizing faith with a mission to bring its message to all who would listen. In another passage in the ...more


CONTRACT LAW. Classical Islamic law did not have a comprehensive theory of obligations and contracts. The formation of the law as a distinct discipline, with the rise of fiqh treatises after the ninth century and with the common-law jurisprudential accretions through the centuries, meant that a comprehensive system was attempted only in the modern period. This attempt took two forms. Although the theory of obligations and contracts was being presented by some individual authors fromEgyptand theL ...more


CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION. The Iranian Constitutional Revolution (1905-1911) was one of two major revolutions in modernIranthat, together with several rebellions, madeIranthe most revolutionary Middle Eastern country of the modern era.Iranowed its revolutionary character largely to the country's semicolonial status (much like revolutionaryChina); the alliance among merchants, `ulama' (religious scholars), and modern intellectuals; and the central role in revolutions of many cities. The particula ...more

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