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NUSAYRIYAH. See 'Alawiyah. ...more


NURI, FAZLULLAH (December 24, 1843 in Mazandaran – July 31, 1909 in Tehran), more fully, Hajj Shaykh Fazlullah ibn Mulla `Abbas Mazandarani Nuri Tihrani, a distinguished Iranian Shi'! scholar. His father, Mulla `Abbas Nuri, was a prominent jurist. Nuri studied Shi'i jurisprudence with Hajj Mirza Muhammad Hasan Shirazi (d. 1312/1894) in Najaf. Shirazi is famous in nineteenth-century Iranian history because of his antitobacco edict during the Tobacco Revolt of 1891-1892. Finishing his studies in ...more


NURCULUK. The modern Turkish religious movement known as Nurculuk takes its name from its founder and leader Bediuzzaman Said Nursi (18761960). He was born in the village of Nurs in the province of Bitlis in eastern Turkey in a region with a largely Kurdish population. In the 1870s the ...more


NURCHOLISH MADJID (March 17, 1939 – August 29, 2005), Indonesian scholar and advocate of religious tolerance. Nurcholish is among Indonesia's most daring theologians. His vision of Islam is pluralistic, tolerant, and intended to meet the spiritual needs of a modern urban population. Like other modernist thinkers, Nurcholish roots his theology in the doctrine of tajdid or a return to the Islam of the prophet Muhammad. Unlike other modernists he is more concerned with spirituality than with ritu ...more


NUMEROLOGY. The science of interpreting numbers in a mystical or magical sense was very popular in the traditional Islamic world. By assigning each letter of the Arabic alphabet a number (alif= I, h=5, etc.) Muslims could easily derive dates from the sacred scripture by means of adding the values of the letters of key words or important phrases. This custom, very common in earlier days, is still practiced in some countries. However, the recent attempt of a Muslim numerologist to prove with the h ...more


NUBUWAH. See Prophet-hood. ...more


NIQABAH. The common contemporary Arabic for any association of those who earn their living by practicing a common profession or a profession within a common sector of the economy is nigdbah. Like the French syndicat the term covers a range of occupations from the university-trained professions, such as medicine or law, to craftsmen, skilled workers, and industrial employees. It can refer to a union branch or local as well as to higher levels of associations, but it is not generally used for the ...more


NI`MATULLAHIYAH. Beginning as a Sunni Sufi order in the fourteenth century in southeastern Iran, the Ni'matullahiyah became Sh!'! in the fifteenth century. It established itself in India in the same century, returned to Iran in the eighteenth, and since the mid197os has spread into the West. The Ni'matullahiyah takes its name from Nur al-Din Ni'mat Allah ibn `Abd Allah al-Kirmani, better known as Shah Ni'mat Allah Wali, a Sufi and prolific author born around the year 1331. At the age of twent ...more


NIGERIA. A federal republic, Nigeria comprises thirty states plus a Federal Capital Territory at Abuja. The most recent census, in 1991, did not ask questions of religious or ethnic identity, but put the total population at about 90 million; however, several international organizations use population estimates for Nigeria ranging from 100 to 115 million. ...more


NIGER. More than 90 percent of the 7,469,000 people of the Republic of Niger are Muslim (national census, 1988). Niger is situated in the Sahel region of Africa; its northern half is Sahara desert. Agriculture, including livestock rearing, is the primary economic activity of 85 percent of Niger's population. The two major droughts of 1973-1974 and 1984-1985 caused significant population displacement, forcing many nomadic groups to take refuge in towns. This accelerated Islamic reform as formerly ...more

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