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`ID AL-FITR. (EID AL FITR)The Feast of Breaking the Fast is celebrated at the end of the month of fasting, Ramadan. Also known as the Minor Festival (`Id al-Saghir) or the Lesser Bayram, `Id al-Fitr is one of two canonical annual festivals celebrated universally throughout the Muslim world (the other is `Id al-Adha). According to the lunar Muslim calendar, the festival begins on the first day of Shawwal, the month following the Ramadan month of fasting, and lasts for three days. ...more


EXEGESIS. See Tafsir. ...more


ETHNICITY. The Qur'an states repeatedly that individuals, not groups, are responsible for what they do, stressing the unity of the Islamic ummah (community) in verse after verse and emphasizing the primacy of bonds created through Islam over those based on shared identities of kinship, descent, region, and language-bonds which the medieval Moroccan philosopher Ibn Khaldun (d. 14o6) collectively called `asabiyah ("group cohesiveness"). Muslims say that commitment to Islam supp ...more


ETHIOPIA. Islam has played a significant and at times central role in the political, socioeconomic, and cultural life of Ethiopia throughout the entire history of Islam itself as well as for the last thirteen centuries in Ethiopia. However, particularly in the modern history of Ethiopia, the roles of Islam have nearly always been deeply intermixed with other political and cultural issues and formations such that the distinctive significance of Islam per se is at best difficult to extract. In thi ...more


ETHICS. In contemporary Anglo-American discussion, ethics has to do with the study of practical justification. It focuses on describing and evaluating the reasons persons and groups give for judgments they make about right and wrong or good and evil, particularly as those terms relate to human acts, attitudes, and beliefs. If we proceed from this understanding to a discussion of Islamic tradition, we first note that there is no single analogue for ethics in that tradition. Instead there are s ...more


ESCHATOLOGY. The study of "last things," eschatology frequently incorporates two separate but related concepts: the after life, and the end of the world. After life. In concepts closely related to ideas from other branches of Near Eastern monotheism, the Qur'dn emphasizes the inevitability of resurrection and judgment and the eternal division of righteous and wicked into heaven and hell. On the day of resurrection (Yawm al-Qiyamah) humans will stand before Go ...more


ERSOY, MEHMED AKIF (20 December 1873 - 27 December 1936), Turkish Islamist poet. Born in Istanbul of devout parents, Akif received a secular education, graduating first in his class (1893) from the Civil School of Veterinary Sciences. He was a gifted linguist in Arabic, Persian and French, but it was through un-rivalled mastery in his native Turkish that Akif was to convey his poetic vision of the ideal Muslim society, based on his study of Islamic doctrine and the Qur'an. Possessed of convictio ...more


NECMETTIN ERBAKAN, ((29 October 1926 – 27 February 2011), Turkish political leader. A native of the Black Seaport of Sinop, Necmettin Erbakan spent his childhood in provincial cities where his father served as a judge in criminal courts. He acquired his primary school education inTrabzon, his high school education at Istanbul Lisesi, and his higher education at Istanbul Technical University. He remained at the same institution for his doctoral studies, which he completed inGermanyat the Aachen ...more


EPIGRAPHY. See Calligraphy and Epigraphy. ...more


ENVER PASHA (November 23, 1881 – August 4, 1922), Ottoman Turkish general and commander of the Ottoman armies during World War I. Born in Istanbul on 23 November 1881, Enver Pasha graduated from the military academy in 1902 and was posted to Macedonia, where the army was fighting bands of Greek and Bulgarian nationalist guerrillas. Balkan nationalist movements that emerged from the millet system had a strong religious component. As a result, early Turkish nationalism was strongly tinged with I ...more

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