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ISLAMIC CULTURAL CENTERS. In 1973 the Suleymanll movement began to found Islamic Cultural Centers (Islam Kfiltiir Merkezleri Birligi) in Germany and other countries to organize labor migrants from Turkey and meet their religious needs. With 313 communities and about 18,000 members, the Association of Islamic Cultural Centers became one of the largest associations of Turkish workers in Germany. In I98o, there were also fifteen Islamic Cultural Centers in the Netherlands, nine in Austria, six in S ...more


HUSRI ABU KHALDUN SATI` AL- (18801968), leading ideologist and popularizer of Arab nationalism and Pan-Arabism. Born in 188o in San'a,Yemen, to Syrian Arab parents fromAleppo, young alHusri moved often as his father filled Ottoman judicial posts inYemen, Anatolia, andLibya. Since the family spoke Turkish at home, al-Husri learned Arabic late and spoke it with a heavy Turkish accent. Graduating in igoo from the Mulkiye Mektebi (CivilServiceCollege) inIstanbul, he spent eight years in the Balkan c ...more


HUSAYNIYAH. A special site where ritual ceremonies commemorating the life and martyrdom of Imam Husayn are held, husayniyah can be a temporary tent set up especially for the Muharram mourning ceremonies or a permanent building that is also used for religious occasions throughout the year. Husayniyahs are found in all Shi'i communities throughout the world and are known as such inIran,Iraq, andLebanon. InIranthe terms husayniyah and takiyah are used interchangeably, with local custom determini ...more


HUSAYNID DYNASTY. Husayn ibn 'Ali, founder of the Husaynid dynasty (1705-1957), and his descendants ruledTunisiaduring an era of increasing external pressures. Civil wars that provoked Algerian intervention plagued the early years of the dynasty and persuaded the Husaynid beys, who were part of an Ottoman ruling elite only loosely integrated into Tunisian society, of the need to develop a broad base of support in the country. The beys began to integrate tribal warriors into their army and to ele ...more


HUSAYN IBN 'ALI (c.1853-1931), amir and sharif ofMeccaand leader of the Arab revolt against the Ottomans in World War I. Husayn, of the `Awn branch of the Hashemite family, was appointed to the emirate by Sultan `Abdulhamid II in 19o8. Husayn and his son, `Abd Allah (Abdullah), engineered the appointment, portraying the former as loyal to the sultan and opposed to the Committee for Union and Progress, which had proposed `Ali Haydar of the Zayd branch of the Hashemites as its candidate. Husayn ...more


HUSAYN IBN 'ALI (626-68o), the third Shi'i imam, son of `All ibn Abi Talib and grandson of the prophet Muhammad. As Muhammad had no male heirs, Husayn and his elder brother Hasan are believed to have continued the Prophet's line through his daughter Fatimah and his cousin `Ali. Hagiographical tradition abounds with tales of love and affection of the Prophet for his two grandsons. `Ali was assassinated in 661 after a short and turbulent caliphate and was succeeded by his elder son, Hasan. But ...more


HUSAYNI,AL-HAJJAMINAL-(1895-1974), mufti ofJerusalemand a nationalist leader during the period of British rule overPalestine(1917-1948). AlHAJJ Amin al-Husayni came from an aristocratic landowning family that traced its lineage to the prophet Muhammad. His grandfather, father, and half-brother served as muftis ofJerusalem. Husayni studied briefly atal-AzharUniversityinCairo(1912-1913) and, after serving in the Ottoman army, became an active Arab nationalist. From 1918 to 1920, he supported the u ...more


HUSAYN, TAHA (1889-1971), Egyptian novelist, critic, and modernist reformer. His two Arabic nicknames summarize this famed writer's life. One, `Amid al-Adab al-'Arabs (dean of Arabic literature), signals his pivotal role as one of the towering figures of Arabic letters in the twentieth century. The other, Qahir alZalam" (Conqueror of Darkness), alludes to his blindness, a handicap that gives his story a heroic cast. Taha Husayn was born in `Izbat al-Kiln, a small village inUpper Egypt, to a l ...more


HUMAN RIGHTS. The term "human rights," or huquq al-insan in Arabic, has only recently come into common use, as have the analogous terms huquq-i insan in Persian and insan hukuklart in Turkish. Early Reception. Concepts analogous to human rights have certain precursors in the Islamic heritage of philosophy and theology, but human rights lack precise equivalents in medieval figh (jurisprudence). In figh the category hagq al-`abd, the right of the individual Muslim, was used to distinguish cases ...more


HUKUMAH. The modern Arabic term for "government," hukumah (Tk., hukumat; Pers., hukumat) is commonly distinguished from dawlah ("state"). As in European usage, government is understood as the group of individuals who exercise the authority of the state. Hukumah in this sense is a nineteenth-century neologism, adopted as Muslims became increasingly aware of and interested in European forms of government. In classical Arabic usage, the term hukumah had the broad sense of adjudication; along wit ...more

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