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JUSTICE. [This entry comprises two articles. The first discusses concepts of justice that inform Islamic political discourse and that, more broadly, suffuse the Islamic worldview; the second focuses on the notion of social justice in modern Islamic thought as developed in the writings of Sayyid Qutb and others.] Concepts of Justice It has been argued that if the Chris ...more


JUMBLATT, KAMAL (Kamal Joumblatt, 191'7-1977), Lebanese politician, traditional Druze chieftain, leader and ideologue of the Left. Born in the mountain village of al-Mukhtarah, Jumblatt attended the Lazarist school of `Ayntirah and received his university education at the Sorbonne. He later studied law at the Jesuit Saint Joseph University in Beirut. ...more


JUDAISM AND ISLAM. From Islam's inception, it has had a varied and profound relationship with Judaism. In scripture and thought, in society and politics, in culture and intellectual life, the two religious civilizations have exemplified their relations. In modern times, these relations have reflected major historical dislocations. This article selectively surveys the history and range of contacts between Islam and Judaism, while emphasizing the modern period. ...more


JIHAD ORGANIZATIONS. The number of jihad organizations has been increasing in the Arab world, and indeed in much of the Islamic world. This fact does not say as much about Islam, as is often assumed in the West, as it says about desperate attempts to exploit Islam politically. The word jihad is often translated in the Western press as "holy war," although the original Islamic concept, on the basis of a well-known hadith, does not have an exclusive military connotation. Jihad is Arabic simply mea ...more


JORDAN. The modern state of Jordan first emerged in 1921 as the Emirate of Transjordan. Until the end of World War I this area had been part of greater Syria under Ottoman rule. After the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in 1918 the Allied Powers divided the Middle East into spheres of influence, with Transjordan and Palestine under British mandate and trusteeship. In 1946 Transjordan achieved independence to become the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, with Prince Abdullah ibn al-Hussein its first monar ...more


JIZYAH. A word meaning recompense, compensation, or requital, as in the Qur'dn: "Fight those who believe not in Allah, nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the Religion of Truth from those who have been given the Book-until they pay the jizyah by hand and are subdued" (9.29). In Islamic history jizyah has most commonly referred to a head tax, levied on non-Muslim dhimmis (protected monotheists under a contract of obligatio ...more


JINNAH, MOHAMMAD ALI (1876-1948), Quaid-i-Azam ("Great Leader") and first governor-general of Pakistan. Born in Karachi, the eldest child of well-to-do Khojas, young Jinnah was sent to London in 1893 and apprenticed to a British managing agency. He was bored by business, however, and turned to the study of law at Lincoln's Inn and also aspired to acting. Jinnah helped the " grand old man" of India's National Congress, Parsi Dadabhai Naoroji, win a seat in the and with Dadabhai's joined the India ...more


JIHAD. Carrying the basic connotation of an endeavor toward a praiseworthy aim, the word jihad bears many shades of meaning in the Islamic context. It may express a struggle against one's evil inclinations or an exertion for the sake of Islam and the ummah, for example, trying to convert unbelievers or working for the moral betterment of Islamic society ("jihad of the tongue" and "jihad of the pen"). In the books on Islamic law, the word means an armed struggle against the unbelievers, which is ...more


JERUSALEM. One of Islam's three holiest cities, Jerusalem was originally an old Canaanite settlement where David, king of Israel, built his capital and his son Solomon, the Temple. Generally called simply "the Holy" (al-Quds) by the Muslims, Jerusalem is not mentioned by name in the Qur'an, but the Muslim tradition unanimously sees a reference to it in the allusion in surah 17.1 where Muhammad was borne by night from Mecca to "the distant shrine" (al-masjid al-aqsa). Muslim armies took Jerusalem ...more


JANISSARIES. In the late fourteenth century the government of the Ottoman Empire established an elite slave infantry known as "new troops" or Janissaries (Turkish, yenicen), differentiating them from the traditional levies of free Muslim warriors. Interpreting freely the ancient rules of Islamic warfare, by which a portion of enslaved prisoners taken in battle went to the ruler, the Ottoman government continued the enslaving process in peacetime. It instituted a quadrennial collection (devsirme) ...more

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