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JAMIYATUL `ULAMA'-I PAKISTAN. The party of Pakistan's Barelwi `ulama' the Jam'iyatul `Ulama'-i Pakistan was formed in Karachi in 1948 at the behest of Mawlanas `Abdulhamid Bada'uni, Sayyid Muhammad Ahmad Qadiri, and `Allamah Ahmad Sa'id Kazimi. After the Jam'iyatul `Ulama'-i Islam, it has been the largest `ulama' party of Pakistan. The Jam`iyat follows the Barelwi school of Islamic thought, also known as the ahl-i sunnat wa jamacat ("people of the custom and community"), a term that reflects the ...more


JAM'IYATUL `ULAMA'-I ISLAM. The origins of the Jamclyatul `Ulama'-i Islam (JUI, Society of Muslim `Ulama') can be traced to the Deoband movement in prepartition India and to the `ulama' who consitituted the Jam'iyatul `Ulama-i Hind (Society of Indian `Ulama'). Such `ulama' have been typically characterized as "Indian nationalists," because during the latter days of British India they were unalterably opposed to British imperialism, supported the aims and policies of the Indian National Congress, ...more


JAM`IYATUL `ULAMA'-I HIND. An organization of Muslim religious scholars of India, the Jam'Iyatul `Ulama'-i Hind (Association of the `Ulama' of India) was established in November 1919, when numerous `ulama' from all parts of India came to participate in the Khilafat Movement conference in New Delhi [see Khilafat Movement]. The organization came into being when Indians of all religious affiliations were united in the anti-British struggle. Mohandas Gandhi embraced the cause of the Ottoman caliphat ...more


JAMIYAT AL-SHUBBAN AL-MUSLIMIN. A Pan-Islamic Egyptian political association founded in 1927 in Cairo, the Jam`iyat al-Shubban al-Muslimin was apparently modeled in part on the YMCA and is often referred to as the Young Men's Muslim Association, the Y.M.M.A. It was created in the midst of the social and political turmoil of Egypt following the nationalist revolution of 1919 and was one of a large number of societies and associations, of a variety of political stripes, formed in Egypt in that per ...more


JAMI'AH AL-SAYFIYAH, AL-. This Arabic academy in Surat, India, is the principal institution for the religious education and training of the Da'udi Bohra Ismai'ilis. The academy was established in 1814 by the forty-third da'i mutlaq, (head of the Da'udi Bohras), Sayyidna `Abd `Ali Sayf al-Din (1798-181'7). The institution was then known as al-Dars al-Sayfi ("Sayfi learning assembly") in which the delis and their learned disciples conducted sessions in the mosque or courtyard (iwan) of the academy ...more


JAMAAT-I ISLAMI. An Islamic revivalist party in Pakistan, Jama'at-i Islami (the Islamic Organization/ Party) is one of the oldest Islamic movements and has been influential in the development of Islamic revivalism across the Muslim world in general and Pakistan in particular. It was founded in Lahore on 26 August 1941, mainly through the efforts of Mawland Sayyid Abu al-A'la Mawdudi (d. 1979), an Islamic thinker and activist who had dedicated his life to the revival of Islam in India. Mawdfidi h ...more


JAMA'AT AL-ISLAMIYAH, AL-. A broad range of Islamic organizations in Egypt use the name alJama'at al-Islamiyah (Islamic Groups). These groups operate primarily through independent mosques and student unions on university campuses and appeal primarily to Egyptian youths. There does not appear to be any single leadership uniting the various groups; rather, they represent the general trend in Egyptian society toward Islamic resurgence. However, since the mid-1980s an increasing number of clashes ha ...more


JAHILIYAH. In classical usage, the term Jahiliyah refers to the period of time and the condition of society in Arabia before the advent of Islam. Often translated as "the age of ignorance," Jahiliyah connotes a time of paganism before men and women recognized the oneness of God or knew God's sacred law.   In modern usage, Jahiliyah has come to refer to what is deemed as the un-Islamic state of affairs in the contemporary Muslim world. The concept of "modern Jahiliyah," which is at the ...more


JADIDISM. The nineteenth- and early twentiethcentury movement called Jadidism developed among Russian Muslim intellectuals in response to colonial hegemony and the modern age. The name is a contraction of the phrase usul al jaded ...more


INDONESIA. Approximately 85 to 90 percent of Indonesia's more than 180 million people are followers of Islam, the largest population of Muslims of any country in the world today. They are almost all Sunnis and followers of the Shafi'i school. The remainder of the population are Christian, Hindu, animist, or followers of varying Confucian and Buddhist beliefs. ...more

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