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TEXTILES. The achievements of the weavers, dyers, embroiderers, and pattern designers in the lands of Islam have been acclaimed for more than fifteen hundred years. Textiles were the mainstay of many premodern societies, and they continue to be important in many modern ones. They are woven into the workings of societies in complex ways, distinguishing groups within areas and linking the practice of specific groups across significant geographical expanses. The textile culture of the Islamic world ...more


TERRORISM is the deliberate, unjustifiable, and random use of violence for political ends against protected persons. Obviously, there is no inextricable connection between Islam, or any other great religion, and terrorism. In fact, there is often a great confusion between the phenomenon of political violence and terrorism. The term terrorism applies to a special category of opprobrious acts rather than to all acts of politically inspired violence. Muslims have engaged in terrorism in the modern ...more


TECHNOLOGY AND APPLIED SCIENCES. Between 100 and 1300 CE, the "golden age of science," the Arab and greater Islamic world excelled in scientific activity and many fields of technology, such as civil engineering and optics. This edge disappeared with the invasion and destruction of urban Islamic life by the Mongols, the decline of agriculture and irrigation, the manifestations of religious and intellectual intolerance, and other factors. While science and scholarship thrived in Renaissance Europe ...more


TA'ZIYAH. The Shi`i passion play called ta'ziyah is the only serious drama ever developed in the Islamic world, except for contemporary Western theater. Ta`ztyah (from the Arabic word `aza', "mourning") is mainly performed in Iran. It reenacts the passion and death of Husayn, the beloved grandson of the prophet Muhammad and the third imam of the ShNs. He was brutally murdered along with his male children and companions while contesting his right to the caliphate in battle on the sun-baked wastes ...more


Tazir  refers to punishment for offenses at the discretion of the judge (Qadi) or ruler of the state. It is one of three major types of punishments or sanctions under Sharia Islamic law — hadd, qisas and tazir. The punishments for the hudud offenses are fixed by the Qur'an or Hadith (i.e. "defined by God"), qisas allow equal retaliation in cases of intentional bodily harm, while ta'zir refers to punishments applied to the other offenses for which no punishment is specified in the Qur'an or th ...more


TAXATION. Islam makes specific provision for taxation, the payment of which is viewed as a religious duty. The most important tax is zakdt, a tax based on wealth, which is paid annually at a rate of one-fortieth of the value of personal or business liquid assets. Property and equipment are excluded, but cash holdings and inventories are subject to the tax at the standard rate of 2.5 percent. ...more


TAWHID. An Arabic term meaning literally "making one" or "unifying," is considered by many twentieth century Islamic activists to be the axial or defining doctrine of Islam. Although tawhid has traditionally been recognized as a fundamental doctrine of Islam, its popularity as ...more


TAQWA. A crucial Islamic concept, taqwa essentially signifies "god-consciousness" and "godfearing" and, by extension, "piety," with which it seems to have a partially comparable semantic history. Taqwd and its derivatives occur more than 250 times in the Qur'an; it has been rendered variously as: fear, godfearing, godliness, piety, right conduct, righteousness, virtue, warding-offevil, wariness. A survey of its usage in the Qur'an indicates that taqwa is often paired with faith, goodness, justic ...more


TAQLID. Discussions of reform movements in modern Islam frequently depict these movements as aimed primarily at the eradication of a frame of mind called taghd in Arabic. Often this term is translated as "blind imitation," meaning unquestioning and uncritical conformity to the patterns of behavior and doctrines inherited from past generations. Many writers on modern Islamic reform, as well as its proponents, juxtapose taqlid and ijtihdd as opposites. The latter term designates the development of ...more


TAQIYAH is the precautionary dissimulation of religious belief and practice in the face of persecution. All Muslims recognize the personal duty of affirming right and forbidding wrong, but they also admit that, when confronted by an overwhelming injustice that threatens the well-being of an individual, this obligation can be fulfilled secretly in the heart rather than overtly. Among Shi'i Muslims, who from the death of the Prophet onward considered themselves subject to persistent religious pers ...more

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