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TANZIMAT. The Turkish term Tanzimat ("regulation") denotes a period of social and political reform that transformed the Ottoman Empire by integrating into it institutions deliberately copied from those of western Europe. The period is generally agreed to begin with the proclamation of the quasi-constitutional Charter of Giilhane in 1839, but its terminal date is harder to determine. Its impetus was halted in 1877 by Sultan Abdiilhamid II's suspension of the Ottoman Constitution of 1876, but the ...more


TANZANIA. Although Islam was practiced in East African coastal enclaves and off-shore islands such as Zanzibar (that are now part of Tanzania) as early as the twelfth century CE, only at the end of the nineteenth century did it become a truly popular religion. Its spread from the coast to surrounding areas was linked to trade, and people along the three major routes from the coast to the interior became the most likely converts. These routes were nominally under the control of the ruling Zanziba ...more


TALEQANI, MAHMUD (1910-1979), Iranian cleric and political activist, a key ideologue of the Islamic Revolution Of 1978-1979. Talegani (or Taliqani) was born into a family of `ulama' (religious scholars) in the Taleqan Valley northwest of Tehran and spent his childhood in the capital, where his father was prayer leader of a mosque. ...more


TAKFIR WA AL-HIJRAH, JAMA`AT AL-. After a group of radical Muslims in Cairo abducted and assassinated Shaykh Muhammad Husayn al-Dhahabi, a former Egyptian minister of awqaf and Azhar affairs, in July 1977, the Egyptian media referred to this group as Jama`at al-Takfir wa al-Hijrah. The term defies simple definition, but the meaning is clear: the society "which accuses [nominal Muslims] of unbelief' (takftr) and urges [true Muslims] to "emigrate" (hijrah) from the paganism of modern Egypt. Thi ...more


TAJIKISTAN. An independent state in Central Asia as of December 1991, Tajikistan was formerly a constituent republic of the Soviet Union. In the nineteenth century the area was divided between the emirate of Bukhara and the khanate of Kokand; in the late nineteenth century, Kokand was annexed by the Russian Empire. By the ...more


TAGHUT. The term taghut, from the root tghy ("to rebel, transgress, or overstep the mark"), occurs eight times in the Qur'an, where it denotes a focus of worship other than God and so is often translated as "idols" or "Satan." But its meaning is wider than this: surah 4.6o refers to taking cases for judgment before tdghut, implying earthly authorities that have taken the place of God. ...more


TAFSIR. Exegesis of the Qur'an is known as tafsir. The focus in this article will be on Sunni tafsir, but Shi'i tafsir will also be discussed. The Qur'an, regarded as the word of God, needed tafsir-elucidation, explanation, interpretation, or commentary-for an obvious reason: it ha ...more


TABLIGHI JAMA`AT. The Tablighi Jama'at of the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent, also variously called the Jama'at (Party), Tahrik (Movement), Nizam (System), Tanzim (Organization), and Tahrik-i Iman (Faith Movement), is one of the most important grassroots Islamic movements in the contemporary Muslim world. From a modest beginning in 1926 with da'wah (missionary) work in Mewat near Delhi under the leadership of the Sufi scholar Maulana Muhammad Ilyas (18851945), the jama'at today has followers all ove ...more


TABLIGH. Qazi Muhammad Sulaiman Mansurpuri (d. 1930), an Indian scholar known for several works defending Islam against criticism by non-Muslims, defined tabligh in Tabligh al-Islam (Simla, 1928, p. 4) as "a call toward one's religion by one nation to another." He argued that Islam was the only religion whose scriptures obliged its followers to proselytize others. Mansfirpuri's definition was a rebuttal to Christian missionaries who contended that Islam was not a missionary religion. Max Muller ...more


TABATABA'I, MUHAMMAD HUSAYN ( 16 March 1903 – 15 November 1981), known to his contemporaries as `Allamah Tabataba'I, one of the foremost Qur'anic commentators and traditional Persian philosophers of the twentieth century. Born to a well-known family of Shi'i ...more

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