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MUHAMMAD.peace be upon him [This entry focuses on the Prophet, or the Messenger of God, from whose activity the religion of Islam developed. It comprises three articles: Life of the Prophet Biographies Role of the Prophet in Muslim Thought and Practice The first treats the historical details of his life and work; the second surveys the biographical literature on him; and the third considers him as the paradigm of the ideal person in Muslim thought and practice.] ...more


IBN `ABD AL-WAHHAB, MUHAMMAD (1703-22 June 1792), Saudi Arabian conservative theologian and reformer. Born in al-`Uyaynah inNajd, Ibn `Abd alWahhab belonged to a prestigious family of jurists, both theologians and qadis (judges). Under the tutorship of his father, young Muhammad studied Hanbali jurisprudence and read classical works on tafsir (exegesis), hadith (tradition) and tawhid (monotheism). In his early twenties he began to denounce what he described as the poly theistic beliefs and pract ...more


ABDUH, MUHAMMAD (1849-1905), Egyptian scholar and reformer regarded as the architect of Islamic modernism. The birth year of Muhammad `Abduh coincided with the death of Muhammad `All, the Albanian adventurer and creator of modern Egypt. `All's regime, in political terms, generated the issues of modern change associated in intellectual terms with `Abduh's pioneer leadership as a journalist, theologian, jurist andin the last six yea ...more

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