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OZAL, TURGUT

OZAL, TURGUT (1927-1993), eighth president of Turkey. Born in Malatya on 13 October 1927, Ozal died in office in Ankara on 17 April 1993. He was the eldest of three sons of the banker Mehmet Siddik (Sadik) Bey and the teacher Hafize (Dogan). He received an M.S. in electric ...more

OTTOMAN EMPIRE

OTTOMAN EMPIRE. Called by the Turks Osmanlls, after the name of the founder of the dynasty Osman I (Ar., `Uthman), the Ottomans were Oghuz (Tk., Oguz) Turks who came out of Central Asia and created a vast state that ultimately encompassed all of southeastern Europe up ...more

ORIENTALISM

ORIENTALISM. Beginning as a field based on the study of original texts in Asian languages requiring a rigorous specialized training, Orientalism flourished in Western scholarship fro the. eighteenth ntur to well into the twentieth century. Through the critical philological study of cultural texts of Asian civilizations, it sought to uncover their allegedly essential features. Orientalism was not only a scholarly discipline deriving from European Enlightenment thought, but also an expression of t ...more

ORGANIZATION OF THE ISLAMIC JIHAD

ORGANIZATION OF THE ISLAMIC JIHAD. Munazzamat al-Jihad al-Islami (or simply Jihad alIslam-1; the Organization of the Islamic Jihad) in Lebanon was formed out of Hizbullah (Party of God), which came into being in June 1982 in the town of Baalbek in the Bekaa (Biqa`) valley. The Islamic jihad organization was used by Hizbullah whenever it engaged in covert operations. To maintain that the Islamic jihad organization exists, however, does not mean that it has a separate structure from Hizbullah. ...more

ORGANIZATION OF THE ISLAMIC CONFERENCE

ORGANIZATION OF THE ISLAMIC CONFERENCE The Islamic theory of international relations centers around the Qur'anic concept of ummah, the community of believers that spans all Muslims of various nations and races. Especially with the rise of modern nationstates, Islamic thinkers have debated ...more

OMAN

OMAN. Although a major component of its distinctiveness derives from Ibadi Islam, Oman is religiously, ethnically, and geographically complex. Its estimated 1992 population of 1,500,000 (17 percent noncitizens) included an Ibadi population of 40 to 45 percent; 50 to 55 percent were Sunni; and no more than 2 percent were Shiah ...more

ABDEL RAHMAN, OMAR

ABDEL RAHMAN, OMAR (b. 1938), more properly spelled `Umar `Abd al-Rahman, Egyptian religious scholar and Islamic fundamentalist leader. Born to a poor rural family in the village of al-Jamaliyah in Lower Egypt, Omar Ahmed Ali Abdel Rahman was accidentally blinded at ten months of age. He received a traditional religious education in regional urban centers, memorizing the Qur'an. In 196o he entered the faculty of Fundamentals of Religion at al-Azhar University in Cairo, where he graduated first i ...more

The Opening

This sura is seen to be a precise table of contents of the Quranic message. It is very important in Islamic worship, being an obligatory part of the daily prayer, repeated several times during the day.

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In the name of God, the Lord of Mercy, ...more

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