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NA'INI, MUHAMMAD HUSAYN (May 25, 1860-1936), the leading theoretician of the 1905-1909 Persian constitutional movement and the leading clergyman who granted legitimacy to the rule of Reza Shah Pahlavi. His life can be divided into ...more
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NAHDATUL ULAMA.Established in 1926, the Nahdatul Ulama (or Nahdlatul Ulama, abbreviated NU; from Ar., nahdat al-`Uama') is one of the two largest Islamic social organizations in contemporary Indonesia. It embodies the solidarity of traditionalist `ulama' and their followers who hold to one of the four schools of Sunni Islam, among which the Shafi'i school has been dominant. The social basis of NU has been and still is largely the pesantren or traditional institution of Islamic l ...more
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NAHDAH. The Arabic word nahdah may be translated "rising," "awakening," "revival," or "renaissance" and refers commonly to the revival, or renaissance, of Arabic literature and culture in the Levant and Egypt from about the middle of the nineteenth century to World War I. This revival began with the work of writers such as Nasif Yaziji (1800-1871) and Butrus al-Bustani (18191883) in Syria and Lebanon and Rifa'ah Raffal-Tahtawi (1801-1873) in Egypt, who sought to revive classical forms of Arabic, ...more
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MYANMAR. At the time of the most recent published census (1983), the Muslim population of Myanmar (formerly Burma) accounted for only 3.9 percent of the country's 34 million people. This proportion has remained stable since records began last century. The ov ...more
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MUTAHHARI, MURTAZ A (January 31, 1919 – May 1, 1979), Iranian religious scholar and writer, one of the closest associates of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Born in a village in northeastern Iran to a scholar who was also h ...more
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A pre-Islamic tradition, mut `ah ("temporary marriage") still has legal sanction among the Twelver Shicis, residing predominantly in Iran. It is often a private and verbal contract between a man and an unmarried woman (virgin, divorced, or widowed). The length of the marriage contract (ajal) and the amount of consideration (ajr) given to the temporary wife must be specified; temporary marriage may be contracted for one hour or ninety-nine years. The objective of mut`ah is sexual enjoyment (istim ...more
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MUSTAFA, SHUKRI (1942-1978), Egyptian Islamist militant who worked for the moral reformation of society. The Islamist movement in Egypt is characterized by internal divisions. The Muslim Brotherhood represents the more accommodationist groups who work to reform the system by working within it. Al-Jihad is the most famous of the antiregime elements while alTakfir wa al-Hijrah epitomizes the antisociety Muslim groups. The last was founded in the early 1970s by Shukri Mustafa, who defected from the ...more
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MUSTAI`AFUN. Revolutions tend to popularize egalitarian, romantic, and utopian ideas that often mesmerize the masses. In revolutionary Iran, Ayatollah Ruhollah al-Musavi Khomeini (d. 1989) popularized the concept of the mustad `afun, which literally refers to the lower classes, the downtrodden, the meek, and to all those who are deprived of the opportunity to develop their full potential. Khomeini's sympathy with the plight of the mustad'afun was rooted in both political and religious grounds ...more
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MUSLIM WORLD LEAGUE. Founded in All 1381/1962 CE at the height of the Egyptian-Saudi political crisis, the Muslim World League (Rabitat al-`Alam al-Islam!) was the product of a meeting of III Muslim scholars, intellectuals, and politicians held in Mecca on the occasion of that year's pilgrimage. They convened to discuss the affairs of the Islamic ummah in view of the threats posed to it by "communism" in general and the "irreligious" Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser in particular. On 18 May ...more
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MUSLIM LEAGUE. This organization is the successor in Pakistan of the All-India Muslim League, which spearheaded the movement for the creation of Pakistan. The latter, established in 1906 in Dhaka, articulated three objectives-the protection of Muslim political rights in India, the attainment of self-government appropriate to India, and cooperation with the All-India National Congress. In its first phase (1906-1930) Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the President of the League, emphasized the creation of a se ...more
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