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TECHNOLOGY AND APPLIED SCIENCES. Between 100 and 1300 CE, the "golden age of science," the Arab and greater Islamic world excelled in scientific activity and many fields of technology, such as civil engineering and optics. This edge disappeared with the invasion and destruction of urban Islamic life by the Mongols, the decline of agriculture and irrigation, the manifestations of religious and intellectual intolerance, and other factors. While science and scholarship thrived in Renaissance Europe ...more
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TA'ZIYAH. The Shi`i passion play called ta'ziyah is the only serious drama ever developed in the Islamic world, except for contemporary Western theater. Ta`ztyah (from the Arabic word `aza', "mourning") is mainly performed in Iran. It reenacts the passion and death of Husayn, the beloved grandson of the prophet Muhammad and the third imam of the ShNs. He was brutally murdered along with his male children and companions while contesting his right to the caliphate in battle on the sun-baked wastes ...more
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Tazir  refers to punishment for offenses at the discretion of the judge (Qadi) or ruler of the state. It is one of three major types of punishments or sanctions under Sharia Islamic law — hadd, qisas and tazir. The punishments for the hudud offenses are fixed by the Qur'an or Hadith (i.e. "defined by God"), qisas allow equal retaliation in cases of intentional bodily harm, while ta'zir refers to punishments applied to the other offenses for which no punishment is specified in the Qur'an or th ...more
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TAXATION. Islam makes specific provision for taxation, the payment of which is viewed as a religious duty. The most important tax is zakdt, a tax based on wealth, which is paid annually at a rate of one-fortieth of the value of personal or business liquid assets. Property and equipment are excluded, but cash holdings and inventories are subject to the tax at the standard rate of 2.5 percent. ...more
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TAWHID. An Arabic term meaning literally "making one" or "unifying," is considered by many twentieth century Islamic activists to be the axial or defining doctrine of Islam. Although tawhid has traditionally been recognized as a fundamental doctrine of Islam, its popularity as ...more
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TAQWA. A crucial Islamic concept, taqwa essentially signifies "god-consciousness" and "godfearing" and, by extension, "piety," with which it seems to have a partially comparable semantic history. Taqwd and its derivatives occur more than 250 times in the Qur'an; it has been rendered variously as: fear, godfearing, godliness, piety, right conduct, righteousness, virtue, warding-offevil, wariness. A survey of its usage in the Qur'an indicates that taqwa is often paired with faith, goodness, justic ...more
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TAQLID. Discussions of reform movements in modern Islam frequently depict these movements as aimed primarily at the eradication of a frame of mind called taghd in Arabic. Often this term is translated as "blind imitation," meaning unquestioning and uncritical conformity to the patterns of behavior and doctrines inherited from past generations. Many writers on modern Islamic reform, as well as its proponents, juxtapose taqlid and ijtihdd as opposites. The latter term designates the development of ...more
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TAQIYAH is the precautionary dissimulation of religious belief and practice in the face of persecution. All Muslims recognize the personal duty of affirming right and forbidding wrong, but they also admit that, when confronted by an overwhelming injustice that threatens the well-being of an individual, this obligation can be fulfilled secretly in the heart rather than overtly. Among Shi'i Muslims, who from the death of the Prophet onward considered themselves subject to persistent religious pers ...more
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TANZIMAT. The Turkish term Tanzimat ("regulation") denotes a period of social and political reform that transformed the Ottoman Empire by integrating into it institutions deliberately copied from those of western Europe. The period is generally agreed to begin with the proclamation of the quasi-constitutional Charter of Giilhane in 1839, but its terminal date is harder to determine. Its impetus was halted in 1877 by Sultan Abdiilhamid II's suspension of the Ottoman Constitution of 1876, but the ...more
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TANZANIA. Although Islam was practiced in East African coastal enclaves and off-shore islands such as Zanzibar (that are now part of Tanzania) as early as the twelfth century CE, only at the end of the nineteenth century did it become a truly popular religion. Its spread from the coast to surrounding areas was linked to trade, and people along the three major routes from the coast to the interior became the most likely converts. These routes were nominally under the control of the ruling Zanziba ...more
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