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SUDAN. Islam entered the region of the Sudan, as it is known today, decisively in the sixteenth century CE. Today approximately 70 percent of Sudan's 22 million people are Muslims, living in the northern two-thirds of Africa's largest country. Non-Muslim minority peoples are found in the Nuba Mountains and southern Sudan where they follow indigenous animist religions, alongside or combined with various Christian denominations introduced during colonial times. A distinctive cultural pattern of ...more
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SUAVI, ALI (1839-1878), a popular reformist figure of the nineteenth-century Ottoman Empire. Suavi exemplifies the ideas of conservative Ottomans who were drawn into a struggle for the expression of the popular will. Although trained in the modern educational system of the rusdiy ...more
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STEREOTYPES IN MASS MEDIA. Numerous Americans come to know approximately 250 million Arabs and more than one billion Muslims from mainstream mass media, in particular, television programs and motion pictures, which provide virtually most images citizens have of the peoples of the world. ...more
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SOUTH AFRICA. The 1993 South African apartheid census figures divided the population into four categories: Africans, 32 million; Coloureds, 5 million; Indians, I million; and Whites, 5 million. The total number of Muslims is currently more than half a million, of whom 2.5 percent are Africans, 49.8 percent Coloureds, 47 percent Indians, and .7 percent Whites. By the twenty-first century Muslims will probably comprise 2 percent of the total population, as compared to I percent in 1993 Muslims ...more
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SOMALIA. The Muslims of Somalia constitute almost 99 percent of an estimated population of eight to ten million. Four Sufi orders-the Qadiriyah, Ahmadiyah, Salihiyah and Rifa'iyah-have greatly influenced Somali Islamic practices. As in other cultures, Somali Islam has incorporated some pre-Islamic customs, for example, obligatory prayers for rain often involving young children. Somali lore divides society into two main categories, the man of religion (wadaad) and the warrior (waranleh, literally ...more
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SOKOTO CALIPHATE. Founded in the early nineteenth century by Usuman Dan Fodio, the Sokoto Caliphate continues to exert strong cultural influence in Nigeria. Three historical phases of the caliphate can be identified: the establishment of the caliphate (1803-1837), its transformation (1837-1960), and the current era (since 1960). The savannah states of Hausaland in West Africa had been nominally Muslim since the fifteenth or sixteenth century under the impact of the trans-Saharan trade from No ...more
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SOCIAL SCIENCES. A strong interest in the social order was manifested from the earliest period of Islamic history. Society was to be patterned according to the guidelines laid down in the Qur'an. The emergence of the schools of law (madhahabs) indicated the serious concern with social issues; the interests of the individual were placed within the context of the greater society. The earliest formulation of the concept of a good society and government containing elements of political and social ...more
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SOCIALISM AND ISLAM. Two important currents of social and religious philosophy that have flowed through centuries of Middle Eastern and North African development are socialism and Islam. Although they have often reinforced each other, sometimes they have come into conflict. Both schools of thought have individually and collectively exerted major influences on the political and spiritual direction of the region. Socialist philosophy and practice, though generally considered to be of European o ...more
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SLAVERY. A prevalent institution of the Islamic world throughout its history, slavery (`ubudiyah, riqq) had a crucial influence on societies and cultures of Islam. Slavery was common in pre-Islamic and contemporary societies in the Mediterranean basin, Asia, and Africa. Early Islamic dogma assumed its existence as part of society and set out to mitigate the conditions of human bondage. Islamic law defined slavery as an intrusive practice: it forbade the enslavement of free members of Islamic ...more
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SIRHINDI, AHMAD (26 June 1564-10 December 1624), eminent Indian Sufi whose ideas shaped the second or Mujaddidi- phase of the Naqshbandi order. Sirhindi was born in the town of Sirhind, East Punjab, the son of a Chishti-Sabiri shaykh, `Abdulahad. Educated by his father and at Sialkot, he was later invited to the Mughal court where he assisted the chief minister Abu'l-Fadl. In 1599 he was initiated into the Naqshband! order by Khoja Baqi Billah (1563-1603). Subsequently he devoted his considerabl ...more
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