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Sufi Shrine Culture

In many Muslim countries special shrines have been constructed honoring famous Sufi leaders or "saints" vho, it is believed, could work miracles during their ives and even after their death. This kind of shrine may be called darih, mazar, zdwiyah or maqam in Arabic. In some areas it is called qubbah after the cupola that is the most characteristic architectural element in many shrines. The saint's tomb is certainly the essential part of such a shrine; it is a place to which people make visits to ...more
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Sufi Orders

Sufi orders represent one of the most important forms of personal piety and social organization in the Islamic world. In most areas, an order is called a tariqah (pl., turuq), which is the Arabic word for "path" or "way." The term tariqah is used for both the social organization and the special devotional exercises that are the basis of the order's ritual and structure. As a result, the "Sufi orders" or tariqahs include a broad spectrum of activities in Muslim history and society. Mystical ex ...more
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SUFISM

SUFISM. [This entry comprises three articles: Sufi Thought and Practice Sufi Orders Sufi Shrine Culture The first provides an overview of the traditional themes, practices, literatures, and institutions of Sufism; the second surveys the development and spread of Sufi orders throughout the Muslim world; and the third treats the spiritual, social, and political significance of Sufi shrines. See also Sufism and Politics.] Sufi Thought and Practice In a ...more
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SUDAN

SUDAN. Islam entered the region of the Sudan, as it is known today, decisively in the sixteenth century CE. Today approximately 70 percent of Sudan's 22 million people are Muslims, living in the northern two-thirds of Africa's largest country. Non-Muslim minority peoples are found in the Nuba Mountains and southern Sudan where they follow indigenous animist religions, alongside or combined with various Christian denominations introduced during colonial times. A distinctive cultural pattern of ...more
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SUAVI, ALI

SUAVI, ALI (1839-1878), a popular reformist figure of the nineteenth-century Ottoman Empire. Suavi exemplifies the ideas of conservative Ottomans who were drawn into a struggle for the expression of the popular will. Although trained in the modern educational system of the rusdiy ...more
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STEREOTYPES IN MASS MEDIA

STEREOTYPES IN MASS MEDIA. Numerous Americans come to know approximately 250 million Arabs and more than one billion Muslims from mainstream mass media, in particular, television programs and motion pictures, which provide virtually most images citizens have of the peoples of the world. ...more
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SOUTH AFRICA

SOUTH AFRICA. The 1993 South African apartheid census figures divided the population into four categories: Africans, 32 million; Coloureds, 5 million; Indians, I million; and Whites, 5 million. The total number of Muslims is currently more than half a million, of whom 2.5 percent are Africans, 49.8 percent Coloureds, 47 percent Indians, and .7 percent Whites. By the twenty-first century Muslims will probably comprise 2 percent of the total population, as compared to I percent in 1993 Muslims ...more
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SOMALIA

SOMALIA. The Muslims of Somalia constitute almost 99 percent of an estimated population of eight to ten million. Four Sufi orders-the Qadiriyah, Ahmadiyah, Salihiyah and Rifa'iyah-have greatly influenced Somali Islamic practices. As in other cultures, Somali Islam has incorporated some pre-Islamic customs, for example, obligatory prayers for rain often involving young children. Somali lore divides society into two main categories, the man of religion (wadaad) and the warrior (waranleh, literally ...more
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SOKOTO CALIPHATE

SOKOTO CALIPHATE. Founded in the early nineteenth century by Usuman Dan Fodio, the Sokoto Caliphate continues to exert strong cultural influence in Nigeria. Three historical phases of the caliphate can be identified: the establishment of the caliphate (1803-1837), its transformation (1837-1960), and the current era (since 1960). The savannah states of Hausaland in West Africa had been nominally Muslim since the fifteenth or sixteenth century under the impact of the trans-Saharan trade from No ...more
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SOCIAL SCIENCES

SOCIAL SCIENCES. A strong interest in the social order was manifested from the earliest period of Islamic history. Society was to be patterned according to the guidelines laid down in the Qur'an. The emergence of the schools of law (madhahabs) indicated the serious concern with social issues; the interests of the individual were placed within the context of the greater society. The earliest formulation of the concept of a good society and government containing elements of political and social ...more
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