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HUJJATIYAH. A conservative    religio-political school of thought within Shiism, the Hujjatiyah was founded in the early 1950s. The Hujjatl founder, Shaykh Mahmud Halabl, is rarely seen in public, and devotees of this tendency constitute the most conservative, ultratraditionalist clergy and laypersons. Originally founded as the Hujjatiyah Society inMashhad,Iran, the group is known for having organized several anti Baha'i campaigns. Hujjatlyah derives from the word hujjah, meaning both proo ...more


HUDUD. Classical Islamic law divides the punishment for crimes into two categories: hudud (sg., hadd; lit., "limit" or "prohibitions") are mandatory punishments imposed for crimes against God, and ta`zir ("deterrence") are punishments at the discretion of the qad i (judge). The traditional crimes for which hudud punishments are imposed are those against morality (adultery, fornication, and false allegations of adultery), property (theft and highway robbery), and a residual group involving apo ...more


HOUSES. The dwellings that Muslims have constructed and occupied are as varied as the geographical and cultural landscapes in which they have lived. For building materials, until the last quarter of the twentieth century, they have relied on resources readily at hand. In many parts of Africa, Arabia, andAsia, the primary material used by sedentary peoples has been earth. In rocky regions, stone construction is widespread, as inYemen,Mecca,Lebanon, andPalestine. Cut stone was the main material, o ...more


HOSTAGES. Seizing, detaining, and threatening to injure a person in order to secure compliance with a condition or demand from a third party is the act of hostage taking. Before the advent of the modern regime of international law, belligerents often took hostages to secure compliance with requisitions, contributions, ransoms, bills, or treaties. The four 1949 Geneva Conventions and the 1977 Hague Protocols I and II prohibited the taking of hostages in international and internal armed conflicts. ...more


HONOR. The notion of honor figures prominently in ensembles of ideas about respect and social status. As a comparative sociological concept, it denotes enhanced status and capacity for social relations. In more narrowly cultural terms, honor is a composite aspect of persons, social conduct, morality, and social metaphysics. The grounds and expressions of honor are many and vary with what is important and problematic in personal interaction. Honor was first examined in tribal "codes" idealizin ...more


HIZBULLAH. [This entry comprises articles focusing on Iran and on Lebanon, the two countries where groups naming themselves as Hizbullah have been active in the late decades of the twentieth century.] Hizbullah in Iran The Qur'anic term hizb Allah (mentioned in surahs 5 and 58) refers to the body of Muslim believers who are promised triumph over hizb al-Shaytan (the Devil's party). Thirteen centuries later, the term was reemployed by Iranian ShN faithful who described their a ...more


HIZB-I ISLAMI AFGHANISTAN. Two political parties that from 1978 until 1992 fought against the Marxist government of Afghanistan share the name Hizb-i Islami Afghanistan. The better known and more influential of these parties is headed by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and the other by Maulavi Yunus Khales. Both leaders are Pushtuns (Hekmatyar from northern Kunduz Province, and Khales from eastern Ningrahar Province), and their parties have their strongest bases of support in Pushtun regions of the country. ...more


HIZB AL-TAHRIR AL-ISLAMI. Established in Jerusalem in 1953 by Tagi al-Din al-Nabhani (1909-1977), an al-Azhar graduate and religious school teacher and judge from Ijzim in northern Palestine, and a group of colleagues who had separated from the Muslim Brotherhood, Hizb al-Tahrir al-Islam! (the Islamic Liberation Party) declared itself to be a political party with Islam as its ideology and the revival of the Islamic nation-purged of the vestiges of colonialism and restored to an Islamic way of li ...more


HIZB AL-NAHDAH. Formerly called al-Ittijah alIslami (Mouvement de la Tendance Islamique, abbreviated MTI), the political movement that in 1988 adopted the name Hizb al-Nahdah (Renaissance Party) is the principal representative of Islamist thought and political expression in contemporary Tunisia. The movement's relations with the government have from the outset been contentious, but it has survived successive waves of repression. It is thought to have the diffuse support of as much as one-third o ...more


HIZB AL-DA`WAH AL-ISLAMIYAH. One of the three most important activist ShIN organizations in opposition to Saddam Hussein's Bath regime in Iraq, and the oldest among them, is the Hizb al-Da'wah alIslamiyah (Islamic Call Party). The others are the Supreme Council of the Islamic Revolution in Iraq, founded in Iran in November 1982, and the Organization of Islamic Action, founded in Karbala in the 1960s. Political History and Program. The party (known in short form simply as the Da'wah) was estab ...more

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