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ENNADHA. See Hizb al-Nahdah. ...more


ENGLAND. See Great Britain. ...more


EMBASSIES. See Diplomatic Missions. ...more


ELIJAH MUHAMMAD (October 7, 1897 – February 25, 1975), leader of the Black Muslim group, the Nation of Islam, for more than forty years. Born Paul Robert Poole in October 7, 1897 on a tenant farm in Sanders ville, Georgia, Elijah Muhammad was the seventh of twelve children. He assumed the name Elijah in honor of his grandfather and later chose the last name Muhammad, following the example of his religious guide and mentor, Fard Muhammad (formerly Wallace D. Fard), an enigmatic figure who is ...more


ELECTRONIC MEDIA. See Radio and Television. ...more


EGYPT. Religion plays a major role in Egypt today. Approximately 9o percent of modern Egypt's estimated 61 million inhabitants are Sunni Muslim. There are several religious minorities, the largest of which is an indigenous Christian minority constituting the Coptic Church. In 1990, estimates of the Coptic population ranged from 3 million to 7 million, while other Christians included approximately 350,000 followers of the Greek Orthodox Church, 175,000 Eastern and Latin Rite Catholics, and 200,00 ...more


EDUCATION. [To explore the dimensions of education in the modern Islamic world, this entry comprises five articles: Religious Education Educational Institutions Educational Methods Educational Reform, The Islamization of Knowledge The introductory article provides an overview of the role and function of religious education in Muslim community life: the four complementary articles provide details on educational practices, theori ...more


ECONOMICS. [This entry comprises two articles. The first traces the rise and growth of contemporary Islamic economic doctrine; the second surveys the operations of institutions and organizations that play a role in the management of economic activity in the modern Islamic world. For related discussions, see Economic Development; Modernization and Development.] Economic Theory The mid-twentieth century saw the birth of Islamic economics, a doctrine billed as an alternative ...more


ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. As Europe's Industrial Revolution got underway, the Islamic world was in the final phase of a protracted decline that began around the twelfth century. The slide had appeared to be over with the rise of the Ottoman Empire, but the Turkish defeats of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries made it plain that the balance of power now favored the industrializing nations of western Europe. The military failings of the Turks, like those of other Muslim forces, reflected the Isl ...more

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