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AWAMI LEAGUE. As one of Bangladesh's two major political parties, the Awami ("people's") League led the country's war of independence against Pakistan in 1971, under the charismatic Shaikh Mujibur Rahman (1920-1975), affectionately called the Banglabandhu or "Friend of Bengal." It is a secularly oriented, left-leaning political organization. Its party symbol, the boat, symbolizes the river-based life of the r ...more


AVRUPA MILLI GORUS TESKILATI. In the early 19'70S the first branches of the "National Vision" (Milli GORUS) organization were founded by Turkish labor migrants in Europe. These groups had close connections to the National Salvation Party (Milli Selamet Partisi [MSP]). The name "Milli GORUS" stands for a philosophy as well as for the organization and is derived from the programmatic book Milli GORUS" (Ankara,. 1973) of party leader Necmettin Erbakan. In 1976 the various groups joined together in ...more


AUTHORITY AND LEGITIMATION. Most Muslim rulers try to legitimize their authority through Islam; however, there are today only two regimes in Sunni Islamic countries in which the king claims a religious title associated with his political authority-Morocco and Saudi Arabia (Tibi 1985). The title of the Moroccan king is amir al-mu'minin ("commander of the faithful"), and the Saudi king is khddim al-haramayn alsharifayn ("custodian of the holy shrines" of Mecca and Medina). In Saudi Arabia the Qur' ...more


AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND. Although there have been Muslims in Australia and New Zealand for more than a century, the present small but active Muslim communities have developed since 1950. The first Muslims in Australia were camel drivers who helped open up the interior of the country in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, but they did not establish a continuing Muslim community. This occurred only in the 1950s when some Muslims came as part of the considerable postwar immigration ...more


ATATIORK, MUSTAFA KEMAL (1881-1938), founding father of the Turkish Republic. Born of modest Turkish parentage in the cosmopolitan Ottoman port of Selanik (now Thessalonliki in Greece) into a markedly Muslim environment, Ataturk opted for a military education, passing out as an infantry staff-captain in 1905. A participant in the Young Turk movement, his early military career ran concurrently with his secret, illegal political activities against the despotism of Sultan Abdul Hamid II ...more


ATABAT. The Shi`i shrine cities of Iraq, Najaf, Karbala, Kazimayn, and Samarra-comprising the tombs of six of the imams-are important centers of devotion, pilgrimage, scholarship, and political activism known as `atabat ("thresholds"). Primacy among the `atabat is held by Najaf, 15o kilometers to the south of Baghdad; it is generally held to be the site of burial of 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, first of the imams, the origins of whose shrine go back to the late ninth century. Karbala, 90 kilometers so ...more


ASTRONOMY. One of the greatest astronomers of Islam, al-Battani (the Albatenius, Albategni, or Albategnius of the Latin West, d. c.929 CE), declares that astronomy is the most noble of the sciences, elevated in dignity, and second only to the science of religious law (Sayili, 1960, p. IS). This praise of the discipline is not merely a practitioner's claim; embodies a historical truth. Indeed, astronomy is the only natural science that escaped the censure of the medieval Muslim opponents of se ...more


ASTROLOGY. To say that a belief in astrology is a feature of the popular culture of the modern Islamic world is to make a trivial statement, for this is true of practically all world cultures. It is a nontrivial exercise, however, to study the distinguishing features of the Islamic astrological tradition, the role it has played in blending and modifying and then transmitting outward all the various elements in drew from a host of classical foreign cultures, and the attitudes Islam displayed towa ...more


`ASHURA'. The tenth day of the Muslim month of Muharram, `Ashura' had been considered by early Muslims to be a very auspicious and joyous day, as many important and happy events, such as the landing of Noah's ark, took place on it. This perception was changed forever on `Ashura' in the year 680 when Husayn, the beloved grandson of the prophet Muhammad and third imam of the Shi'is, brutally perished in the Battle of Karbala. The tragic death of Husayn on `Ashura' is viewed by the ShNs as the grea ...more


See Afghani, Jamal al-Din al-. ...more

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