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The origins of the Arab-Israeli conflict can be traced back more than a century, when Jews, disillusioned with prospects for integration into European societies, began to immigrate to Palestine in 1882, not as individuals seeking to pray and die in Jerusalem but as a part of a political movement. In 1897, this political trend was further inspired by the First Zionist Congress, which called for the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine, thus spawning the modern Jewish national movement, Zion ...more


Meaning assembly, meeting, or association, anjuman has played in important role in the political and cultural life of twentieth-century Iran. It gained currency during the Constitutional Revolution (190519o9), when many political action groups emerged to support different ideologies. The anjumans were modeled on a semi-secret society founded by Malkom Khan in 1858 which aimed to introduce modern ideas and rule of law in Iran. But this society was banned in 1861, since it arouse ...more


Established in the late 1980s, the Al-Khoei Benevolent Foundation has centralized religious centers and institutions for Islamic education that were acquired through pious donations managed by the late Ayatollah Abol Qasem al-Kho'i (Abu al-Qasim Khu'i, d. 1992) in his position as the marja` al-taqlid (supreme juridical authority) of the majority of Shi`i Muslims. Practical considerations prompted lay and religious leaders among al-Kho'i's Persian and Arab followers in Europe and North America to ...more


A Turcoman line ruling in Iran from 1736 to 1796 was known as the Afsharid dynasty. The empire established by the dynasty's founder, Nadir Shah Afshar (r. 1736-1747), stretched from Iraq to northern India; Nadir's successors reigned only in northeastern Iran(Khurasan province). Nadir Shah began his career as commander-in-chief for Tahmasp II, claimant to the throne of the Safavid dynasty, which had been ousted from Isfahan by the invading Ghilzai Afghans in 1722. In 1732 he deposed Tahmasp in fa ...more

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