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PILLARS OF ISLAM. The foundations (arkan) upon which the religion of Islam rests are known as the five pillars, a belief based in a saying of the Prophet, reported in both Sunni and Shi` Y hadith tradition, "Islam is built upon five [fundamentals]." The five are the profession or witness (shahadah). "There is no god except God and Muhammad is the messenger of God"; regular observance of the five daily prayers (salat); the offering of the welfare alms (zakat); performance of the hajj pilgrimage; ...more


PILGRIMAGE. See Hajj; Ziyarah.   HAJJ. Unique among the world’s great pilgrimages, the hajj is in many ways also the most important. ...more


PHILOSOPHY. From its genesis twelve hundred years ago to today, Islamic philosophy (al-hikmah; alfalsafah) has been one of the major intellectual traditions within the Islamic world, and it has influenced and been influenced by many other intellectual perspectives including scholastic theology (kalam) and doctrinal Sufism (al-ma'rifah; `irfan). The life of Islamic philosophy did not terminate with Ibn Rushd nearly eight hundred years ago, as thought by Western scholarship for several centuries; ...more


PHILIPPINES. In 1990. the Muslim population of the Philippines comprised between five and six million, or about 8.5 percent of the country's sixty-six million inhabitants. The vast majority of these Moros, as Philippine Muslims are called, live in the western and central parts of Mindanao island and the Sulu Archipelago. They are classified into twelve ethnolinguistic groups, the major ones being Maranao, Maguindanao, Tausug, Samal and Yakan. Agriculture and fishing are their main occupations. S ...more


PESANTREN. A type of school in Southeast Asia offering second-level training in Islamic subjects is termed pesantren on Java, surau on Sumatra, pondok on the Malay Peninsula, and pandita ("school") in the Philippines. Pesantren derives from the sixteenth century, when learning centers known as the "place of learning for the Islamic faithful (santris)," were established. Surau was a place for worship in early Southeast Asia, while pondok derives from the travelers' inns (Ar., funduq) of the Middl ...more


PERSIAN LITERATURE is a body of poetic and other literary works created principally, but not exclusively, in Iran. Beyond the present political boundaries of Iran proper, Afghanistan, the Indian subcontinent, Central Asia, and Turkey have been home to a rich body of literary work written in Persian. In the context of Iran's full and multifaceted participation in and contributions to what has been called "the Islamic civilization," Persian literature constitutes a rich, diversified, and autono ...more


PERKIM. An acronym for Pertubuhan Kebajikan Islam SeMalaysia, or All Malaysia Muslim Welfare Association, PERKIM was founded in 1960 by the first prime minister of the newly independent nation, Tunku Abdul Rahman, as a religious and social welfare organization. Much of the original funding was provided by the Tunku's contacts with elites in the Muslim world, notably Saudi royalty, the Organization of the Islamic Conference, and a $I2-million gift from Libya. ...more


PERIODICAL LITERATURE. It is a prodigious, if not impossible, exercise to circumscribe "Islamic periodical literature." The tradition of Orientalist scholarship long employed the term "Arabic literature" as a synonym for "Islamic literature," extending this to a degree to literature in Turkish and Farsi. Urdu and Malay, however, did not receive the attention owed to the two major languages of nearly half the world's Muslims. For present purposes, we will define Islamic literature as the body of ...more


PEOPLE OF THE BOOK. Qur'anic in origin, the term ahl al-kitdb refers mainly to Jews, Christians, and (less frequently) the Sabaeans as possessors of previous revealed books. It was sometimes applied also to other communities. Zoroastrians were most prominent here, although even polytheists were sometimes thus categorized. In the case of the Jews and Christians, there were known books associated with them: al-Tawrdh (the Torah), al -Zabur (the Psalms), and al -Injil (the Gospel). Though consid ...more


The body of law dealing with wrongs that are punishable by the state with the object of deterrence is known as criminal law. Islamic criminal law recognizes three categories of these wrongs. See Criminal Law. for detail ...more

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