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DIPLOMATIC IMMUNITY. With a long tradition in the customary practices of nations, diplomatic immunity, originally justified on the basis of theories of sovereign representation and exterritoriality, is now accepted as a functional necessity. Customary rules of diplomatic immunity have been codified authoritatively by the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (1961) and the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (1963), which have been ratified by most nations. At a minimum diplomatic immuni ...more


DIPLOMACY. See International Relations and Diplomacy. ...more


DIN WA-DUNYA. See Islamic State. ...more


DIHLAWI, SHAH WALI ALLAH. See Wali Allah, Shah. ...more


DIETARY RULES. Islamic prescriptions concerning food and drink keep Muslims mindful in their everyday lives of God's will and of their membership in a global community of shared values and obligations, regardless of their social rank. As set forth in the seventh century in the Qur'an and the hadiths the rules are based on the categories of pure (their) and impure (rijs, najis) and of lawful (halal) and unlawful (haram). In general they are well known by Muslims, though not always observed. Since ...more


DHIMMI. In Islamic law one who is in the covenant of protection (dhimmah) with the Muslim power is considered dhimmi. In principle, the covenant could be made between Islam and any population of a non-Muslim country conquered by Muslim forces. But in the usual meaning and practice the covenant was made only with scriptuaries, ahl al-kitab ("people of the book"). Besides Jews, Christians, and Sabaeans, the category of ahl al-kitab was often extended to cover Zoroastrians, someti ...more


DHIKR. Most commonly associated with Sufism, dhikr ("remembrance, reminder, evocation") is both a concept and a meditative practice. It is also a unifying theme across the diversity of cultural forms in Islam, appearing in each form in a distinctive expression. Its specific appearance in Sufism can best be understood against its wider background as a key theme in Islamic cultures. In poetry, dhikr is the remembrance of the lost beloved. The classical ode (qasidah) b ...more


DEVOTIONAL POETRY. The creation of religious verse seems to be a latecomer in the Islamic world. An aversion to poetry, especially religious poetry, is palpable in the first centuries of Islam, when it was feared that poetry-criticized in the Qur'an, (surah 26.226 ff.) and often negatively described in hadith might conflict with the divinely inspired words of the Qur'an, or that people might think religious verses were divinely inspired. The praise  poems by the Prophet's companion Hassan ibn T ...more


DEVOTIONAL MUSIC. The most characteristic sounds of devotional expression in Muslim communities may be the call to prayer (adhan) and the recitation of the Qur'an (qira'ah al-Qur'an). Neither of these is considered by Muslims to be music; rather, they are texts that are delivered and sometimes amplified or enhanced using selected musical devices, which are always subordinate to the text. In Middle Eastern Muslim communities, these sounds are familiar to almost everyone. The call to prayer is ...more


DEVIATION. See Bid'ah. ...more

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