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DESTOUR. At the beginning of the twentieth century an organization known as the Young Tunisians cradled a new sense of Tunisian nationalism. Drawn primarily from the Turkish Mamluk aristocracy that ruled Tunisia prior to the French protectorate, the French educated Young Tunisians aspired simply to make Tunisia modern. Anti-colonial sentiments grew after World War I, and in 1920 many of those who had belonged to the elite Young Tunisians joined with urban merchants and notables to form a more ex ...more


DERVISHES. See Sufism ...more


DEOBANDIS. The `ulama' associated with the Indo-Pakistani reformist movement centered in the Dar al`Ulum of Deoband are known by the name Deobandis. The school at Deoband, a country town some ninety miles northeast of Delhi, was founded in 1867. It was a pioneer effort to transmit the religious sciences, specifically the dars-i nizami identified with the Lucknow based `ulama' of Farangi Mahall, by utilizing institutional forms derived from British schools. The goal of the school was to preserve ...more


DEMOKRAT PARTI.Turkeywas ruled by the Demokrat Parti (DP) from 1950 until its overthrow by a military coup on 27 May 1960. Its founders, Celal Bayar (1884-1986), Mehmet Fuat Koprulu (1890-i966), Refik Koraltan (1891-1974), and Adnan Menderes (18991961 ), were all ranking members of the governing Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi (Republican People's Party, CHP). Bayar, a banker in his early life, had played a critical role during the Kemalist period in the liberal, antistatist wing of the party and had se ...more


Da‘wah Academy was established in March, 1985, in order to launch educational, training and research programmes for Da‘wah purposes addressing the needs of Muslim communities within and outside Pakistan. Inviting people to accept the supremacy of the Almighty Creator and to follow the right path of submission to none but the Creator in all affairs is an obligation upon all believers. Individuals, society as well as the Islamic state are under obligation to put the Book of Allah and the Sunna ...more


DEMOCRACY. Around the middle of the nineteenth century, new ways of thought began to emerge in theMiddle East, owing primarily to contact with European industry, communications, and political ideas and institutions. Although the new modes of thought did not represent a break with the Islamic past, there was a modern element in the thought of some Muslim thinkers and officials who learned about Western culture, and who believed that Muslims could increase their strength by adopting Western laws a ...more


AL-DAWLAHAL-ISLAMIYAH, See Islamic State. ...more


DAWLAH. An Arabic term from the root d-w-l, meaning to rotate, alternate, take turns, or occur periodically, dawlah, in a modern context, refers to the concept of state and is a central concept in the discourse of the contemporary Islamists. In modern Persian a similar word, dawlat, sometimes refers to the government, and in that sense, it is interchangeable with another Persian term, hukumat (Ar., hukumah). In modern Turkish, devlet (a derivative from the Arabic) refers only to state, not gover ...more


DA`WAH. [To explore the dimensions of religious outreach or mission activity in the modern Islamic world, this entry comprises three articles: Qur'anic Concepts Institutionalization Modern Usage The first article surveys issues articulated in the Qur'an and hadith; the second describes the development of organizations devoted to Islamic outreach; and the third considers the evolution of the idea in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. For a related discussion, see Tabligh.] Q ...more


DARUL ISLAM. Popularly called DI, Darul Islam is the name given to the Islamic insurgent movement in West Java, Indonesia, that challenged the legitimacy and authority of the newly independentRepublicofIndonesiabetween 1948 and 1962. Led by Sukarmadji Maridjan Kartosuwiryo (1905-1962), the Darul Islam's military forces, officially known as the Indonesian Islamic Army (Tentera Islam Indonesia or TII) from its bases in West Java's Sunda highlands sought to give effect to the proclamation (7 August ...more

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