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CITIZENSHIP. The concept and form of citizenship evolved gradually from the time of the Greek city-state to the formation of nation-states in the nineteenth century. As reflected in the writings of philosophers from Plato and Aristotle to Abbe de Mably and Rousseau, the perception of a subject as a passive member of society was slowly transformed to a citizen as an active member, with certain rights and duties within the community. The modern concept of citizenship within democratic principles a ...more


CIRCUMCISION. The rite of passage of circumcision plays varied roles in Islamic society, depending on gender, ethnic orientation, and modern cultural attitudes. There are differences of opinion among the legal authorities over whether circumcision is fard (legally obligatory) or sunnah (the practice of the Prophet), nor is the motive for the operation always clear. Socially, it is obviously a rite of passage of considerable status significance for young boys when it is performed at ten to twelve ...more


CINEMA. The development of cinema was closely linked to Western industrialization. It was exploited in Europe and the United States as a commercial entertainment for a largely working-class audience, and, even when exported, has remained a secular, commercial entertainment. At the turn of the century, the social and economic conditions in the Islamic world were vastly different from those in Europe and the United States, and it is significant that some of the first contacts between cinema and th ...more


CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM. The history of Christian-Muslim relations begins with the biography of the prophet Muhammad. Muhammad met Christians and Jews on various occasions. Ibn Ishaq reports that a Christian uncle of Muhammad's first wife identified Muhammad's experience in the cave of Hira as divine revelation. Later, however, Muhammad disputed with a Christian delegation from Najran about the doctrine of the Incarnation; yet this same delegation had been invited to pray in the Prophet's mosque. ...more


CHISHTIYAH. One of the main Sufi brotherhoods of South Asia, Chishtiyah takes its name from the village of Chisht, near Herat in western Afghanistan, where it is said to have originated. Its supposed founder in India, Mu'inuddin Chishti (d. 1236), is a shadowy figure surrounded by many legends. The brotherhood has spread throughout present-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh; it is characterized by its extreme enthusiasm for ecstatic listening (sama') to music and poetry. In spite of its popular ...more


CHIRAGH `ALI (1844-1895), Indian modernist author. Chiragh 'Ali came to prominence as a supporter of Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan and the Aligarh movement. He came from a Kashmiri family settled in the United Provinces and served the British administration in North India in various judicial and revenue positions. In 1877, thanks to the recommendation of Sir Sayyid, he entered the service of the nizam of Hyderabad. There he rose to the position of Revenue and Political Secretary and was known by the tit ...more


CHILDREN'S BOOKS AND CARTOONS. Children's literature goes back centuries in the Islamic world, and is an interesting reflection of developments in Muslim societies generally. The education and entertainment of children play an important role in the socialization process of the young. For the contemporary period, this process is effected through both formal state and nongovernmental organizations-and informal mechanisms, including children's books, cartoons, and other published materials. Because ...more


CHILDREN. See Family. ...more


CHARITABLE ASSOCIATIONS. See Muslim Brotherhood; Waqf. ...more


CERAMICS:see pottery  and ceramics ...more

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