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ISTIQLAL. The leading Moroccan nationalist party in the period 1943-1962, the Istiqlal (Hizb al-Istiqlal, "Independence party") was founded in December 1943 by Ahmad Balafrej and a group of younger Moroccan nationalists drawn from the urban bourgeoisie of Fez, Rabat, Tangier, and Tetouan. Together with King Muhammad V, Istiqlal played a major role in bringing about the end of the French and Spanish protectorates in March 1956. From the outset, the movement drew both on currents of Islamic ref ...more

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