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PAKISTAN. The Islamic Republic of Pakistan, with a population of 122.8 million (1993 estimate), is the second largest Muslim nation in the world. Although they belong to five distinct ethnic groups-Punjabi, Sindhi, Pathan, Baluch, and Muhajirs (Urdu-speaking immigrants from preparti ...more


ISLAMIC STATE. Although the original Islamic sources (the Qur'an and the hadiths) have very little to say on matters of government and the state, the first issue to confront the Muslim community immediately after the death of its formative leader, the prophet Muhammad, in 632 CE was in fact the problem of government and of how to select a successor, khalifah (caliph), to the Prophet. From the start, therefore, Muslims had to innovate and to improvise with regard to the form and nature of governm ...more

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