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ISLAMIC REPUBLICAN PARTY. Founded in February 1979, shortly after the fall of the Iranian monarchy, the Islamic Republican Party (IRP) had the approval of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (1902-1989), and its key founding members were among his top clerical loyalists. Foremost among them were Muhammad Bihishti, `Abd al-Karim Musavi Ardabili, `Ali Khamene'i, 'All Akbar Hashimi Rafsanjani, and Muhammad Javad Bahunar. All were also members of the Revolutionary Council. Bihishti was the secretary general ...more


ISLAMIC RENAISSANCE PARTY. Surfacing in the Soviet Union during the summer of 1990, the Islamic Renaissance/Revival Party (IRP, or Hizb-i Nahzat-i Islami) developed as opportunities for religious expression expanded under the policy of glasnost (openness) introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev. Just as the Soviet Tatars persuaded Stalin in 1942 to allow the formal Islamic hierarchy to function, so too the formation of the IRP began under Tatar Islamic leadership. The movement for Islamic revival repres ...more

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