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KHALWATIYAH. This Sufi tariqah derives its name from khalwah, periodic retreat, which is an important feature in most branches of the Khalwatiyah. It is significant that the order derives its name from an institution rather than from an eponym, because the tariqah does not trace its origin to one founder. Originating in Central Asia, the Khalwatiyah entered the Ottoman Empire in the fifteenth century. Within a century it had become the most widespread Sufi order in the empire, although it experi ...more


KHALID, KHALID MUHAMMAD Egyptian writer and essayist. Born in Shargiyah ince, he graduated from al-Azhar in 1947 with miyah degree from the Faculty of Shari`ah gained a teaching certificate, also from al-Azhar. He worked as an Arabic language teacher and the Cultural Bureau (Idarat al-Thaqafah) of the Ministry of Education and with the Writers' Committee (F Kuttab) connected to the Ministry of Culture. became a supervisor in the Department for the tion of the Heritage (Al-Ishraf `ala Idarat Ta T ...more


KHALAFALLAH, MUHAMMAD AHMAD (1916- 1991), contemporary Islamic modernist thinker. Born in Sharqiyah Province in Lower Egypt, he attended traditional Islamic schools, a government school, and then Dar al-`Ulum, followed by the Faculty of Arts at the Egyptian (later Cairo) University, from which he graduated in 1939 He completed his M.A. in 1942 with a thesis on "Al-jadal fi al-Qur'an" (Polemic in the Qur'an), later published as Muhammad wa-al-quwd almudad ...more


KEMALISM. The ideas and principles of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the founder and first president of the Turkish Republic, are termed Kemalism; Kemalism constitutes' the official ideology of the state, and endured publicly unchallenged until the 1980s. Kemalism proper is symbolized in the six points enumerated in the Republican People's Party (Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi, or CHP) Statutes of 1935; these were incorporated in the constitution of 1937, which remained in effect until 1961, then only to be re ...more


KEMAL, MEHMET NAMIK (1840-1888), Ottoman Turkish poet, prose writer, and libertarian theoretician. Namik Kemal was born in 1840 in the small town of Tekirdak, but his life was shaped by more exalted influences, including his family's tradition of state service, immersing him in Ottoman culture at an early age. His own career in the Ottoman bureaucracy brought him into contact with Western culture, especially through the medium of works in French. He was born in the year after the proclamation of ...more


KAZAN KHANATE. A Chinggisid successor state to the so-called "Golden Horde", the patrimony granted to Chinggis Khan's oldest son Jochi in the early thirteenth century CE, the Kazan Khanate was centered on the city of Kazan, located in present-day Tatarstan on the eastern bank of the Volga River north of its confluence with the Kama. This territory had once formed a part of Volga Bulgaria, the first Muslim state in eastern Europe (already converted to Islam by the time of Ibn Fadlan's visit in 92 ...more


KAZAKHSTAN. Sunni Islam of the Hanafi School was introduced to the territory of what is now Kazakhstan in the late eighteenth century on the order of Catherine the Great, with the intention of civilizing and pacifying the pastoral nomads with whom her expanding empire was coming into increasing conflict. Her missionaries of choice were Tatars from Kazan, who began to spread the faith among the northern and western Kazakhs; in the south, missionaries from the Khoqand Khanate voluntarily took the ...more


KAWAKIBI, `ABD AL-RAHMAN AL- (185419o2), Islamic revivalist and advocate of an Arab caliphate. Al-Kawakibi was born to a prominent family in Aleppo, Syria, and was educated thoroughly in religion, Ottoman administrative law, Arabic, Turkish, and Farsi. He began his career in journalism and the law and from 1879 to 1896 held several senior public posts. ...more


AHMAD KASRAVI (1890-1946), major historian of modern Iran, political thinker, iconoclastic secularist, and founder of an ideological school named the Azadigan (Freedom) Society. Kasravi was born into a traditional middle-class family in Tabriz an ...more


KASHMIR. The state of Jammu and Kashmir has been a disputed territory between India and Pakistan since the partition of the subcontinent in 1947. Situated in the extreme northwest corner of the South Asian sub continent, it was one of the largest and most populous princely states of British India, sharing borders with India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and China. The undivided state of Kashmir had an area of 84,471 square miles and comprised five distinct regions: the Vale of Kashmir, Jammu, Ladakh a ...more

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