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SYNDICATES

SYNDICATES. Professional syndicates-like labor unions (which are not treated here)-have arisen in the Islamic world in the past century in new or significantly altered occupations which emerged in response to farreaching socioeconomic change. Although loosely influenced by earlier guild practices (such as calling their leader "nagib"), the syndicates took their main models from the West. Often subsumed in the "bourgeoisie" or "new middle class," professionals have received scant study, and compa ...more

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