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PHILOSOPHY. From its genesis twelve hundred years ago to today, Islamic philosophy (al-hikmah; alfalsafah) has been one of the major intellectual traditions within the Islamic world, and it has influenced and been influenced by many other intellectual perspectives including scholastic theology (kalam) and doctrinal Sufism (al-ma'rifah; `irfan). The life of Islamic philosophy did not terminate with Ibn Rushd nearly eight hundred years ago, as thought by Western scholarship for several centuries; ...more

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