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MONARCHY. Islam's expansion faced the ummah (community) with the issue of mulk (royal authority). This term was already used, sometimes pejoratively, under the Umayyads (661-750), who were criticized for betraying an ideal. Qur'an 2.247-249 cites the Hebrew prophet emphasizing that God alone made and unmade (3.26) kings, whom he endowed with knowledge and power, not wealth. Their dyah ("sign") was the Ark, a sakinah, and Moses' and Aaron's relics. Shl'i traditions mention the imams' sakinah (the ...more

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