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MAMLUK STATE. A regime controlled by slave soldiers (sg. mamluk, pl. mamalik; "one owned") governed Egypt, Syria, southeastern Asia Minor, and western Arabia (al-Hijaz; the Hejaz) from 1250 to 1517 CE. Founded by officers (amirs) of the last Ayyubid sultan al-Salih Ayyub (d. 1249), the Mamluk State was born under the shadow of usurpation. Fearing their displacement by al-Salih's heir Turan-Shah, these officers, who had attained high rank in their former master's Bahriya regiment, assassinated th ...more

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