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MATHEMATICS. The mathematical sciences occupy a prominent place in Islamic intellectual history. Historically called `ulum riyadiyah or ta'limiyah (pedagogic mathematics), they comprised the four main branches-arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music- of the quadrivium of the ancient schools. The establishment of the classical scientific heritage in the first few centuries of the spread of Islam further brought such fields as algebra, trigonometry, mechanics, and optics-together with their pra ...more

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