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HUKUMAH. The modern Arabic term for "government," hukumah (Tk., hukumat; Pers., hukumat) is commonly distinguished from dawlah ("state"). As in European usage, government is understood as the group of individuals who exercise the authority of the state. Hukumah in this sense is a nineteenth-century neologism, adopted as Muslims became increasingly aware of and interested in European forms of government. In classical Arabic usage, the term hukumah had the broad sense of adjudication; along wit ...more

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