List Articles


HADARAH. The classical Arabic word haddrah, which connotes a sedentary lifestyle in either city or countryside, is used as a technical term for "civilization" in modern Middle Eastern societies. It is used in the sense of "sedentary life" by Ibn Manzur (d. AH 711/1312 CE) in his Lisan al-'Arab and by Ibn Khaldun (d. 8o8/ 14o6) in his Muqaddimah. Haddrah is synonymous with `umran ("civilization") in Al-muqaddimah li-Kitdb al`ibar; it is comparable to madaniyah in Muhammad `Abduh's (d. 1905) Risal ...more

Translate »