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ASTRONOMY. One of the greatest astronomers of Islam, al-Battani (the Albatenius, Albategni, or Albategnius of the Latin West, d. c.929 CE), declares that astronomy is the most noble of the sciences, elevated in dignity, and second only to the science of religious law (Sayili, 1960, p. IS). This praise of the discipline is not merely a practitioner's claim; embodies a historical truth. Indeed, astronomy is the only natural science that escaped the censure of the medieval Muslim opponents of se ...more

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