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ABDUL HAMID II

ABDULHAMID II (1842-1918), thirty-fourth Ottoman sultan (r. 1876-1909). A profound political and economic crisis brought Abdiilhamid II to the throne. Since 1839 the open-door policy of the government, the commercial and legal privileges granted to European powers, and the westernizing reform attempts-the Tanzimat-had ruptured the Ottoman social fabric. Trade and budget deficits soared. Heavy government borrowing abroad a ...more

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