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SYNDICATES. Professional syndicates-like labor unions (which are not treated here)-have arisen in the Islamic world in the past century in new or significantly altered occupations which emerged in response to farreaching socioeconomic change. Although loosely influenced by earlier guild practices (such as calling their leader "nagib"), the syndicates took their main models from the West. Often subsumed in the "bourgeoisie" or "new middle class," professionals have received scant study, and compa ...more


SENEGAL. Possessed of a strong regional cohesion and distinct Islamic identity for many centuries, Senegal lies just below the westernmost part of the Sahara, which constitutes today the Islamic Republic of Mauritania. Senegal is circumscribed by the arc of the Senegal River, which begins in the mountains of Futa Jalon in today's Guinea; it flows north before turning increasingly to the west and entering the Atlantic Ocean near the town of St. Louis. The Gambia River arises in the same mountains ...more


MUSLIM LEAGUE. This organization is the successor in Pakistan of the All-India Muslim League, which spearheaded the movement for the creation of Pakistan. The latter, established in 1906 in Dhaka, articulated three objectives-the protection of Muslim political rights in India, the attainment of self-government appropriate to India, and cooperation with the All-India National Congress. In its first phase (1906-1930) Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the President of the League, emphasized the creation of a se ...more

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