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Shi`i Schools of Law

1-see Law 2-see sunni school of Law 3-Shi`i Schools of Law Shiism maintained a strong eschatological and legalist tradition through its central doctrine regarding continued divine guidance available through the living imam, whether manifest or concealed. Muslim eschatology taught that the Mahdi among the descendants ...more


continue from LAW   The beginnings of the schools of law in Islam go back to the late Umayyad period, or about the beginning of the second Islamic century, when Islamic legal thought started to develop out of the administrative and popular practice as shaped by the religious and ethical precepts of the Qur'an and the hadith. The role of the Qur'an at this very early stage can be taken for granted, but the role of hadi ...more

Social Justice

Social Justice The Nahdah (renaissance; rebirth), which began in the latter part of the nineteenth century; is a vast intellectual, cultural, religious, and political movement that sought to translate the main principles of Western progress into an Arab and Muslim environment, and as a result, it stood against the degeneration of Islam while attempting to rescue the achievements of classical Islamic civilization from centuries of decline and oblivion. The main representatives of the Nahdah movem ...more


Begum Shaista Ikramullah, the first female representative of the first Constituent Assembly of Pakistan (1947), Pakistan’s former Ambassador to Morocco, mother-in-law of Jordan’s Crown Prince, and niece of the great leader Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, was born on July 22, 1915, at Calcutta in the prominent Suhrawardy family of West Bengal. She was educated at Calcutta and London. During that period, strict purdah environment was prevalent in the Muslim society of India. Her mother was a tradit ...more




ARAB SOCIALISM. The notion of Arab socialism was never articulated precisely, but it can be taken as representing the economic and social aspirations of Nasserism and Ba`thism, the state ideologies of Egypt in the late 1950s and 1960s and of Iraq and Syria from the 1960s until the early or mid-1980s (although officially until the present time). During the years following World War II, a widespread consensus developed among the educated middle classes and among the largely unofficial opposition i ...more


Amir 'Ali, Sayyid; 1849-1928), Indian jurist and author of Islamic modernist apologia. Syed Ameer Ali was born in Chinsura,Bengal into a Shi'i family with a history of service to Persian and Mughal rulers and to the nawabs of Awadh, as well as to the British East India Company. He was educated at Hooghly Collegeoutside Calcutta, then studied law in London and was called to the Bar in 1873. Returning to Calcutta to practice law, he also lectured in Islamic law at Presidency College of Calcutta Un ...more


AHMAD SIRHINDI. See Sirhindi, Ahmad. ...more


AHMAD KHAN, SAYYID (1817-1898), Indian Islamic modernist writer and political activist. The family of Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan claimed lineal descent from the prophet Muhammad; his ancestors had settled in Heratin Afghanistan and then migrated to Mughal Indiain the seventeenth century. Despite their residence in India for nearly two hundred years, Sir Sayyid's family retained a consciousness of their foreign origin. This extraterritorial consciousness determined their outlook, and that of other upp ...more


See  Sayyid Ahmad. ...more

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