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Sahwa Movement (Awakening movement) or Al–Sahwa Al-Islamiyya (Islamic Awakening) is a faction of Saudi Salafism. In Saudi Arabia it has been involved in peaceful political reform. Safar Al-Hawali and Salman al-Ouda are representatives of this trend. Because of being active on social media they have earned some support amongst the more educated youth. This group opposed the presence of US troops on the Arabian peninsula. Origin Muslim Brotherhood members arrived in Saudi Ara ...more


SADR, MUHAMMAD BAQIR AL- (March 1, 1935 – April 9, 1980), innovative and influential Iraqi Islamic thinker and political leader. "An important figure not only in Iraq but in the life of the Shi'i world, and indeed in the Muslim world as a whole" (Albert Hourani), Muhammad Bagir al-Sadr was both a prominent scholar of Islamic law and its contemporary applications and a political leader whose writ transcended his native country to reach Iran and the rest of the Middle East. Thought. Muhammad ...more


SADR. Originally an Arabic honorific, sadr has been used informally since at least the tenth century to denote a prominent member of the `ulama' (community of religious scholars). It became a more institutionalized title in the late eleventh century, particularly in Islamic Central Asia and Iran. The title became hereditary in certain influential learned families, hence the survival of Sadr as a surname, particularly among Twelver Shi’i Muslims. The title, however, was not originally confined ...more


SA'DAWI, NAWAL AL- (born 27 October 1931), leading feminist of the Arab world. Al-Sa'dawi evokes more passion and controversy than any other Arab writer, male or female, inside or outside of the Middle East. At various times, she has been subject to governmental hara ...more


SACRIFICE. The ritual and symbolic practice of sacrifice also has socioeconomic and political connotations in modern Islam. In its ritual facet, the notion of sacrifice is important in the outward practice of Muslim religiosity. Islamic sacrificial rituals may resemble superficially those found in other religious traditions. The most common form is the compulsory slaughter of an animal as part of the obligatory pilgrimage (hajj) and the optional slaughter by nonpilgrims on the occasion of `Id al ...more


SADR, MOSA AL- (4 June 1928 – disappeared in Libya on 31 August 1978), Iranian-born Shi'i cleric of Lebanese descent who made an indelible mark on the Lebanese political scene. Musa al-Sadr is one of the most intriguing and fascinating political personalities to have appeared in the modern Middle East. ...more


SANUSIYAH. Founded by Muhammad ibn `All alSanusi (1787-1859), the Sanuslyah is a Sufi brotherhood based in Libya and the central Sahara. The Sanusi brotherhood is well known for the role it played in the resistance to French and Italian colonialism, but it was formed as a strictly religious brotherhood based on the doctrine of the Shadhiliyah order. The founder, al-Sanusi, was born near Mostaganem in Algeria. In his early life he studied Sufism and Islamic sciences including law and tradition in ...more

Shi`i Schools of Law

1-see Law 2-see sunni school of Law 3-Shi`i Schools of Law Shiism maintained a strong eschatological and legalist tradition through its central doctrine regarding continued divine guidance available through the living imam, whether manifest or concealed. Muslim eschatology taught that the Mahdi among the descendants ...more


continue from LAW   The beginnings of the schools of law in Islam go back to the late Umayyad period, or about the beginning of the second Islamic century, when Islamic legal thought started to develop out of the administrative and popular practice as shaped by the religious and ethical precepts of the Qur'an and the hadith. The role of the Qur'an at this very early stage can be taken for granted, but the role of hadi ...more

Social Justice

Social Justice The Nahdah (renaissance; rebirth), which began in the latter part of the nineteenth century; is a vast intellectual, cultural, religious, and political movement that sought to translate the main principles of Western progress into an Arab and Muslim environment, and as a result, it stood against the degeneration of Islam while attempting to rescue the achievements of classical Islamic civilization from centuries of decline and oblivion. The main representatives of the Nahdah movem ...more

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