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QAJAR  DYNASTY. The last of a series of tribal (or tribally based) dynasties that ruled Iran since the tenth century, the Qajars (1796-1925), like the Safavids, ruled a territory roughly coterminus with contemporary Iran. Most historiography, both Western and Iranian, has stressed negatives about the Qajars, saying, with much justice, that they accomplished little reform or modernization and did little to hold off British and Russian incursions. Some recent historiography has been more positive ...more


QADIRIYAH. Among the better-known names in Islamic mysticism is that of `Abd al-Qadir al-Gilani (or Jilani or Jili), who is associated with the beginnings of the Qadri brotherhood or tariqah either as founder or as patron and sponsor. `Abd al-Qadir's birthdate is usually given as All 470/1077-1078 CE and his date of death as 561/1165-1166. According to the biographer Muhammad Ibn Shakir al-Kutubi, `Abd al-Qadir came from the Persian province of Gilan, southwest of the Caspian Sea; his father was ...more


QADI Throughout Islamic history authority to judge cases between Muslims under the shari `ah was vested in the post of qadi, the single judge of the mahkamah court. Unlike jurisprudents (fuqaha'), qadis did not delve into the sources of the share `ah but referred to recognized law books on subjects considered to fall under religiously sanctioned law. Although the qadi's jurisdiction was fairly general, certain areas such as serious criminal offenses often came instead under the secular jurisdict ...more


Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi(June 7, 1942  – 20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He governed Libya as Revolutionary Chairman of the Libyan Arab Republic from 1969 to 1977 and then as the "Br ...more


`ABD AL-QADIR (18o8-1883), Algerian independence leader, Sufi mystic, and poet. Born Muhy-i al-Din al-Hasani at Wadi al-Hammam, some 2o kilometers west of Mascara in Algeria, into a family of northern Moroccan origin who claimed descent from the prophet Muhammad, Amir `Abd al-Qadir entered history after the French occupation of Algierson 5 July 1830. This invasion led `Abd al-Qadir's father SἲdἲMuhyἲ' al-Din to proclaim a jihad against European colonization in the region of Oran. Ill healt ...more

The Opening

This sura is seen to be a precise table of contents of the Quranic message. It is very important in Islamic worship, being an obligatory part of the daily prayer, repeated several times during the day.


In the name of God, the Lord of Mercy, ...more

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