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Muslim Brotherhood in Jordan

Muslim Brotherhood in Jordan An enduring feature of Jordanian political life for more than fifty years, the Muslim Brotherhood in Jordan was created as part of an effort by the leader of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Hasan al-Banna' (1906-1949) to form additional bases of support for his movement. In the early 1940s, members of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood were sent to both Palestine and Jordan to establish new branches. In 1946, the first Jordanian branch was founded in the town of ...more

Muslim Brotherhood in Syria

Muslim Brotherhood in Syria Throughout its fifty years of activity in Syria, the Muslim Brotherhood has been principally an opposition movement that has never held political power. The brotherhood traces its origins to the 1930s, when the Syrian people were engaged in their struggle to achieve national independence from French rule. The structural changes that Syria experienced during the interwar years were especially disruptive in the town quarters. Small merchants and artisans suffered und ...more

Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt

Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt Contemporary Islamic social and political activism in Egypt is rooted in the founding in 1928 by Hasan alBanna' of Jam'iyat al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Society of Muslim Brothers; also known as the Muslim Brotherhood or the Ikhwan). From the beginning, the Ikhwan's goals were both social and political, promoting the causes of benevolence, charity, and development, on the one hand, and nationalism, independence, and Islamism, on the other. Throughout the Ikhwan's nearly se ...more

MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD

[This entry comprises five articles: An Overview Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt Muslim Brotherhood in Syria Muslim Brotherhood in Jordan Muslim Brotherhood in the Sudan The introductory ...more

MUSIC

MUSIC. Music of the Islamic world can be studied from a wide variety of perspectives, as a historical legacy extending back to the middle ages and antiquity, as a performing art, as a branch of science, and as a medium of spiritual devotion. In the Middle East, its domain spreads throughout North Africa and eastward to include the Arabian Peninsula, Arab countries east of the Mediterranean, Turkey, and Iran. Furthermore, certain patterns of musical culture can be found in various parts of the Is ...more

MUSA, NABAWIYAH

MUSA, NABAWIYAH (1886-1951), feminist and pioneer in women's education. Born in Zagazig, Egypt, the daughter of Musa Muhammad, an army captain who died before her birth, Nabawiyah was raised in Cairo by her mother. Beginning her education at home with the help of her older brother, Nabawiyah entered the girls' section of the `Abbas Primary School, receiving her certificate in 1903. She began teaching at `Abbas in 1906, after completing the Teachers' Training Program at the Saniyah School. Musa r ...more

MURIDIYAH

MURIDIYAH. The best known of the Sufi brotherhoods in Senegal, both within and outside of the country, is the Murldiyah. Its name comes from murid, the postulant who seeks the path to spiritual knowledge. The word was already in use when the French and the followers of the founder of the order, Amadu Bamba M'Backe, came into conflict in the 1890s in western Senegal. Amadu Bamba (c. 1850-1927) was born into a family of itinerant scholars who moved through the Wolof kingdoms of Baol, Cayor, and J ...more

MULLAH

MULLAH. A Persian construction probably from the Arabic mawla ("master," "leader " "lord") mullah is the title used to identify a religious functionary, a cleric, a learned man, or someone with religious education. The title is very much similar to akhund in the range of meanings it invokes. From the Safavid period (AH 907-1145/1501-1722 CE) onward, the term mullah began to be used for various clerical functionaries. During the Qajar period (11931342/1779-1925) the term was institutionalized a ...more

MULLABASHI

MULLABASHI. An institution designating a high religious functionary in Shi'i Islam, which seems to have come into usage toward the very end of the Safavid period (1501-1722), and slowly disapeared in the nineteenth century, mullabashi was intended to replace the more-established term Shaykh al-Islam, but it did not succeed in doing so. A passing reference to it is encountered as late as 1906 (Arjomand, 1988, p. 92). The term itself comes from a Perso-Arabic word, mulld ("mullah", a Muslim clergy ...more

Afghan Mujahidin

Afghan Mujahidin The Afghan Mujahidin are guerrilla fighters who formed their groups in opposition to the communist government after the April 1978 coup. The Mujahidin movement is divided into an array of political parties, each following a different set of ideological, ethnic, clientelist, and sectarian loyalties. The first cleavage among the parties is based on ideological commitment: the Islamists advocate an Islamic revolution, and the "moderates," although committed also to the implement ...more

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