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LABOR PARTY OF EGYPT. The only legal Islamist party in Egypt, and from 1987 the leading opposition party, the Labor Party was founded as the Socialist Labor Party in December 1978. It was represented in the Egyptian parliament, the People's Assembly, from 1979 until 1990. In the 1987 elections, the last in which the opposition took part, the Labor Party became the leading opposition party with 17 percent of the vote and 56 out of 448 representatives. Only 22 of these representatives, however, we ...more


AUTHORITY AND LEGITIMATION. Most Muslim rulers try to legitimize their authority through Islam; however, there are today only two regimes in Sunni Islamic countries in which the king claims a religious title associated with his political authority-Morocco and Saudi Arabia (Tibi 1985). The title of the Moroccan king is amir al-mu'minin ("commander of the faithful"), and the Saudi king is khddim al-haramayn alsharifayn ("custodian of the holy shrines" of Mecca and Medina). In Saudi Arabia the Qur' ...more


[This entry articulates the themes and values in the languages and literatures of Muslims in sub-SaharanAfrica. Reflecting major linguistic divisions, it comprises two articles: East Africa andWest Africa. For discussion of the literatures of North Africa, see Arabic Literature. See also Islam, article on Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa.] East Africa Islam was brought to the peoples of eastern Africa mainly by settlers who arrived either by land, traveling up the Nile, or by s ...more

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