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Islam in China

Islam in China Islam in China has been propagated over the past thirteen hundred years primarily among the people now known as "Hui," but many of the issues confronting them are also relevant to the Turkic and Indo-European Muslims on China's Inner Asian frontier. "Hui teaching" (Hui jiao) was the term once used in Chinese for Islam in general; it probably derives from an early Chinese rendering of the term for the modern Uighur people. According to the reasonably accurate 1990 national censu ...more

Islam in Central Asia and the Caucasus

Islam in Central Asia and the Caucasus: Islam came to Central Asia and the Caucasus not long after its birth in the seventh century. The Arab conquest spanned roughly the period 600-800 CE, with further penetration via traders until 1200. The Mongol empire threatened Islam in the thirteenth century, but the faith withstood this and expanded as Russian conquests dominated the region in the sixteenth through nineteenth centuries. The Bolshevik Revolution and the subsequent antireligious campaig ...more

Islam in the Middle East and North Africa

Islam in the Middle East and North Africa Revelation in the Middle East comes in a variety of versions. Islam is one of them and, like Judaism and Christianity, it is constitutive of an entire civilization. Islamic civilization evolved according to its own dynamics, covering the periods of sacred foundation (634-750), scriptural formation (750-1050), classicism (1050-I8oo), and modern transformation (18oo-present). The focus in this article is on the latter period in which, largely in respons ...more


ISLAM. [This entry consists of an overview of the origins and development of the classical Islamic tradition and eight historical surveys that trace the spread of Islam throughout the world: An Overview Islam in the Middle East and North Africa Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa Islam in Central Asia and the Caucasus Islam in China Islam in South Asia Islam in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islam in Europe Islam in the Americas For further discussions of classical Islam, see Sunni ...more


ISLAH. The Arabic term for "reform," islah has come to denote the reform movement in the Islamic world in the last three centuries. In a modern Islamic context, the term primarily refers to the work and writings of Muhammad `Abduh and his disciple, Rashid Rida. The lexicographic and Qur'anic origins of the word also imply meanings of "reconciliation" and, in the words of the master lexicographer Ibn Manzur in Lisan al-`Arab, "the opposite of corruption." Variants of the word appeared in the Qur' ...more


ISHAKI, AYAZ (1878-1954), Tatar political activist and writer. Born on 23 February 1878 into the family of Giylajetdin, the mullah of Yaushirma village in Kazan guberniya, Ayaz (or Gayaz) Ishaki received a traditional education at the Chistay madrasah (1890-1893) and then at the Kulbue madrasah (1893-1898) of Kazan. In 1898 he entered the Kazan Teachers' School, from which he graduated in 1902, finding employment as a teacher of Russian at madrasahs in Kazan and Orenburg. In 1903 he returned to ...more


IRAQ. As an Ottoman province, Iraq suffered in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries from the waning of Istanbul's influence and from its geographical position at the center of four major historic confluences: in the south, the desert areas were prone to the raids of Najd tribes at a time when the Wahhabiyah movement was on the rise. To the north and east, Shi'i Iran had proved for four centuries to be a major competitor to the Ottomans. The two Islamic powers shared their longest border in Ir ...more


IRANIAN REVOLUTION OF 1979. Like all great social upheavals, the Iranian Revolution of 1979 was many years in the making. Its effects will resound throughout history. In simple terms, the regime of Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi was overthrown by a coalition of opposition forces dominated by Shi'i Muslim fundamentalists. The acknowledged leader of the revolution was Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (1902-1989). The proximate causes of the revolution grew out of a complex interrelationship of social diffi ...more


IRAN. Iranians have always called their country Iran (Land of the Aryans, or "noble people"), but outsiders long used the name Persia (Parsa; Gk., Persis), referring to Pars, now Fars, the southern part of the country. The name Persia remained in use until 1935, when the government in Tehran formally requested the world community to use the name Iran. ...more


IQBAL, MUHAMMAD (1877-1938), Indo-Pakistani political and religious writer and poet. The poetphilosopher of Islam and Pakistan was born on 9 November 1877 at Sialkot, a border town of the Punjab. Iqbal's grandfather, Shaykh Muhammad Rafiq, had left his ancestral v ...more

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