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HIZB. Occuring twice in the Qur'an with positive connotations in the compound term hizaballdh (party of God), the term hizb denotes factions or factionalism in the Qur'an, referring to a state of affairs that should be avoided. In modern usage, hizb refers to a political party in a clearly defined manner. This usage is the result of an attempt to find an Arabic word for a European phe nomenon. In 19o6, Farah Antun (1874-1922), the Lebanese intellectual who spent most of his life in Egypt and ...more


HISTORIOGRAPHY. The modern-day historians of the Islamic world, particularly those of the Middle East and South Asia, are the heirs of a powerful and sophisticated tradition of historical writing, and they appeal to (or feel the burden of) this tradition on many levels. Historical writing was one of the earliest and most highly developed literary genres in every region and language of the Islamic world. The characteristic formal structures, subject matter, and explanatory paradigms of this liter ...more


HISBAH. The word hisbah literally means "sum" or "reward." Technically, however, it connotes the state institution to promote what is proper and forbid what is improper (al-amr bi-al-ma'ruf wa-al-nahy `an almunkar). Although the Qur'an visualizes every Muslim in roles that lead to the propagation of good and the suppression of evil (surah 3.110), the state is empowered to institute arrangements to oversee the implementation of this injunction (surah 3.104). The function of hisbah, therefore, con ...more


HILLI, ALLAMAH IBN AL-MUTAHHAR AL- (1250-1325), scholar and jurist of the Imam! (or Ithna `Ashari) Shi is. Hasan ibn Yusuf ibn al-Mutahhar al-Hilli, known as `Allamah ("most learned"), was born in Hilla in Iraq. His lifetime saw the Mongol capture of Baghdad (1258) and the foundation of the Il-khanid dynasty. The Mongols, contrary to their reputation, permitted, even encouraged, intellectual activity; Hiilegii, for example, founded the observatory and informal academy at Maragha in 1259. `Allama ...more


HILF. See Covenants.   ...more


HIJRAH. The Qur'an identifies the use of the term hijrah (to migrate, abandon, or withdraw; exodus) in reference to the acts of migration of prophets, such as Abraham, Moses, Lot, and others (surahs 19.48-49, 6o.4, and 11.69-83). In Islam, the Hijrah refers to the migration/exodus of Muhammad and the muhajirun (his companions) from Mecca to the city of Yathrib. Muhammad departed from Mecca on Thursday, i Rabi` al-Awwal/13 September 622, arriving at Yathrib, actually Quba', on Monday, 12 Rabi' al ...more


HIJAB. The English term "veil" is commonly used to refer to Middle Eastern women's traditional head, face or body covers, but in fact it has no single equivalent in Arabic. Instead, different terms refer to diverse articles of women's clothing that vary according to region and era. Some of these Arabic terms are burqu`, `abayah, tarhah, bumus, jilbdb, and milayah. Overgarments such as the `abayah of Arabia and the bumus of the Maghrib tend to be very similar for both sexes. ...more


HEKMATYAR, GULBUDDIN (b. 1947?), leader of Hizb-i Islam! Afghanistan, one of the major Islamic political parties in Afghanistan. Hekmatyar is a Pushtun from a branch of the Kharoti tribe that resettled in the northern province of Kunduz. While a student in the College of Engineering at Kabul University in the late 1 960s, Hekmatyar became one of the founders of the Organization of Muslim Youth (Sazman-i Javanan-i Musulman). Inspired by the writings of Sayyid Qutb and other Islamic political theo ...more


HEALTH CARE. Healing traditions of the Islamic world exhibit broad historical and sociocultural variation. Although a certain complex of therapeutic conventions is generally associated with Islamic societies, it represents but one expression of a dialectic of unity and diversity. Specific health practices are not distributed uniformly throughout Muslim communities. Neither are such elements of healing culture unique to these communities, reflecting the distribution of pre-Islamic therapeutic tra ...more


HATT-I HIJMAYUN OF GIDLHANE. See Tanzimat. ...more

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