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BLASPHEMY. See Kufr. ...more


BLACK MUSLIMS. See Nation of Islam. ...more


BIRTH RITES. [To articulate religious values and traditions reflected in birth rites in modern Islamic societies, this entry comprises two articles: Legal Foundations and Modern Practice.] Legal Foundations Islam has relatively few birth rites compared to other Near Eastern religions, and those that exist are recommended (sunnah) rather than obligatory. Structurally, this may be accounted for by the Muslim belief that Islam is the natural religion (din al fitrah). As the h ...more


BIOGRAPHY AND HAGIOGRAPHY. Religious biography has held great importance in Islamic civilization from the earliest period, when works in various genres enumerated the virtues of the Prophet's associates, established priority in joining the Muslim community, and traced tribal genealogies and affiliations. Particularly important is the relationship between early biography and the hadith collections. The `ilm la-rijal, or "science of men," was a branch of Islamic historiography verifying the reliab ...more


BINT AL-SHATI'. See `Abd al-Rahman, 'A'ishah. ...more


BIGI, MUSA YARULLAH (1874-1949), VolgaUral Muslim philosopher and religious scholar. Born 24 December 1874 in Rostov on Don, Bigi was the son of the mullah Yarullah Devlikam, originally from the Kikine village of Penza Gubernia, and of Fatma, the daughter of Imam Habibullah of the same village. He attended the Kulbue madrasah in Kazan but left without graduating and returned to Rostov to enroll in the Russian science gymnasium from which he graduated in 1895, when he left for Bukhara to continue ...more


BID'AH. In modern Islamic religious discourse the meaning of the term bid `ah (lit., "innovation") can be understood from the saying attributed to the Prophet: "Any manner or way which someone invents within this religion such that that manner or way is not a part of this religion is to be rejected." The statement of the Qur'an usually quoted in this context further explicates the rationale behind the prohibition: "Today I have perfected your religion [din] for you . . . and I have chosen Islam ...more


BEN BADIS. See Ibn Badis, `Abd al-Hamid. ...more


Hacı Bayram-ı Veli  (1352–1430) was a Turkish poet, a Sufi, and the founder of the Bayrami Sufi sect. He also composed a number of hymns. Early life He lived between 1352 and 1430. His original name was Numan, he c ...more


Haji Bektash Veli or Haji Bektash Wali (Persian: حاجی بکتاش ولی ‎ Ḥājī Baktāš Walī; Turkish: Hacı Bektaş Veli) was a Persian mystic, humanist and philosopher from Nishapur in Khorasan, Persia (modern-da ...more

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