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  • Author: Azhar Niaz
  • Posted: 758 Live Articles
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ABDUL HAMID II

ABDULHAMID II (1842-1918), thirty-fourth Ottoman sultan (r. 1876-1909). A profound political and economic crisis brought Abdiilhamid II to the throne. Since 1839 the open-door policy of the government, the commercial and legal privileges granted to European powers, and the westernizing reform attempts-the Tanzimat-had ruptured the Ottoman social fabric. Trade and budget deficits soared. Heavy government borrowing abroad a ...more

ABDUH, MUHAMMAD

ABDUH, MUHAMMAD (1849-1905), Egyptian scholar and reformer regarded as the architect of Islamic modernism. The birth year of Muhammad `Abduh coincided with the death of Muhammad `All, the Albanian adventurer and creator of modern Egypt. `All's regime, in political terms, generated the issues of modern change associated in intellectual terms with `Abduh's pioneer leadership as a journalist, theologian, jurist andin the last six yea ...more

ABD EL-KRIM

ABD EL-KRIM (1882-1963), more fully, Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Karim al-Khattabi, Moroccan leader of the Rif Rebellion (1921-1926) and Islamic reformer. Abd el-Krim was the eldest son of `Abd al-Karim ibn Muhammad al-Khattabi, a notable of the Ait Warayaghar, a Tamazight-speaking Berber tribe of theRif Mountainsin northeastern Morocco. In 1921, Rifian troops under Abd el-Krim's command defeated Spanish forces under General Silvestre at the b ...more

ABD AL-RAZZAQ AL-SANHURI

`ABD AL-RAZZAQ AL-SANHURI (1895-1971), Egyptian jurist, legal scholar, and architect of civil codes in several Arab countries. The academic and professional life of Sanhfiri is a reflection of the time during which the need for legal reform arose. For some Muslim countries, this meant the codification and modernization of the shari `ah, and for others the replacement of imported legislation by national and Islamic laws. Sanhfiri drafted the modern civil codes of various Arab countries and attemp ...more

‘ABD AL-RAZIQ, ‘ALI

'ABD AL-RAZIQ, 'ALI (1888-1966), Egyptian shari'ah (divine law) judge, controversial intellectual, and author of Al-Islam wa-usul al-hukm:Bathft al-khilafah wa-al-hukumah ft al-Islam (Islam and the Bases of Political Authority: A Study of the Caliphate and Government in Islam). Published in Cairo in 1925, `Abd alRaziq's book challenged the notion that Islam legislated a specific type of political authority or, for that matter, that it legitimated any form of government at all. In addition to cre ...more

`ABD AL-RAHMAN, A’ISHAH

`ABD AL-RAHMAN, A'ISHAH (b. 1913), Egyptian writer and professor of Arabic language and literature and Qur'anic studies. Under the pseudonym Bint al-Shati' `Abd al-Rahman was the author of more than sixty books on Arabic literature, Qur'anic interpretation, the lives of women of the early Muslim community (especially members of the Prophet's family), contemporary social issues, and fiction. Raised in the Delta port city of Dumyat(Damietta), she was taught the Qur'an and classical Arabic liter ...more

`ABD AL-QADIR

`ABD AL-QADIR (18o8-1883), Algerian independence leader, Sufi mystic, and poet. Born Muhy-i al-Din al-Hasani at Wadi al-Hammam, some 2o kilometers west of Mascara in Algeria, into a family of northern Moroccan origin who claimed descent from the prophet Muhammad, Amir `Abd al-Qadir entered history after the French occupation of Algierson 5 July 1830. This invasion led `Abd al-Qadir's father SἲdἲMuhyἲ' al-Din to proclaim a jihad against European colonization in the region of Oran. Ill healt ...more

`ABD AL-NASIR, JAMAL

See Nasser, Gamal Abdel. ...more

ABDALI DYNASTY

See Durrani Dynasty. ...more

ABD AL-AZIZ, SHAH

ABD AL-AZIZ, SHAH (1746-1824), Indian Islamic scholar. In northern India, `Abd al-`Aziz was a prominent Sufi `alim of his time, a powerful orator (khatib), an effective preacher (wa'iz), and an expert on hadith and the Qur'an. He left a deep imprint on Islamic learning through his writings and through the students who came to the Madrasah-i Rahimiyah from all overIndia. He was also a connoisseur of Indian vocal music and Urdu and Persian literature as well as an accomplished calligrapher and hor ...more

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