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  • Author: Azhar Niaz
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SOKOTO CALIPHATE. Founded in the early nineteenth century by Usuman Dan Fodio, the Sokoto Caliphate continues to exert strong cultural influence in Nigeria. Three historical phases of the caliphate can be identified: the establishment of the caliphate (1803-1837), its transformation (1837-1960), and the current era (since 1960). The savannah states of Hausaland in West Africa had been nominally Muslim since the fifteenth or sixteenth century under the impact of the trans-Saharan trade from No ...more


SOCIAL SCIENCES. A strong interest in the social order was manifested from the earliest period of Islamic history. Society was to be patterned according to the guidelines laid down in the Qur'an. The emergence of the schools of law (madhahabs) indicated the serious concern with social issues; the interests of the individual were placed within the context of the greater society. The earliest formulation of the concept of a good society and government containing elements of political and social ...more


SOCIALISM AND ISLAM. Two important currents of social and religious philosophy that have flowed through centuries of Middle Eastern and North African development are socialism and Islam. Although they have often reinforced each other, sometimes they have come into conflict. Both schools of thought have individually and collectively exerted major influences on the political and spiritual direction of the region. Socialist philosophy and practice, though generally considered to be of European o ...more


SLAVERY. A prevalent institution of the Islamic world throughout its history, slavery (`ubudiyah, riqq) had a crucial influence on societies and cultures of Islam. Slavery was common in pre-Islamic and contemporary societies in the Mediterranean basin, Asia, and Africa. Early Islamic dogma assumed its existence as part of society and set out to mitigate the conditions of human bondage. Islamic law defined slavery as an intrusive practice: it forbade the enslavement of free members of Islamic ...more


SIRHINDI, AHMAD (26 June 1564-10 December 1624), eminent Indian Sufi whose ideas shaped the second or Mujaddidi- phase of the Naqshbandi order. Sirhindi was born in the town of Sirhind, East Punjab, the son of a Chishti-Sabiri shaykh, `Abdulahad. Educated by his father and at Sialkot, he was later invited to the Mughal court where he assisted the chief minister Abu'l-Fadl. In 1599 he was initiated into the Naqshband! order by Khoja Baqi Billah (1563-1603). Subsequently he devoted his considerabl ...more


SIPAH-I PASDARAN-I INQILAB-I ISLAMI. One of the most interesting aspects of the Iranian Revolution is the institutional arrangement that was negotiated over the shape and structure of the post revolutionary armed forces. Rather than completely dismantling the pre revolutionary military structure and replacing it with a militia-based organization, as has been done in many other revolutionary situations, the leadership in Iran has combined a systematic purge and islamization of the armed forces wi ...more


SINGAPORE. The geographical position of Singapore defines the history and contemporary position of its Muslim community. Singapore is the northernmost island in the Riau archipelago, which links the east coast of Sumatra with peninsular Malaysia. This territory is the traditional home of the Malay people. Malay history is intimately linked with Islam, and the first MalayMuslim trading city, Melaka (Malacca), flourished in the fifteenth century. The sacking of Melaka by the Portuguese in 1511 mar ...more

Şinasi, İbrahim

Şinasi, İbrahim (5 August 1826 – 13 September 1871), Turkish journalist. Şinasi is one of the more enigmatic figures of Turkish intellectual history. Despite his role as the founding father of modern Turkish journalism and his basic contributions to the rise of a Turkish critique of society, information about his life is insufficient to paint a portrait of him as an intellectual. Şinasi began his career in government during the first years of the Tanzimat, the era of reforms and moderni ...more


SIN. In the Qur'an several words are used for sin, a breach of the laws and norms laid down by a religion, including dhanb, 1thm, khati'ah, and sayyi'ah. A sin may be one of omission or commission; technically, any violation of a religious law or ethical norm would be a sin, but the sin for which one will be held accountable is, as a rule, the one intentionally committed. If sin is violation, the question arises whether all sins are alike or whether it is possible to grade them. The question ...more


SIBACI, MUSTAFA AL- (1915-1964), Syrian political thinker, educator, and founder of the Muslim Brotherhood in Syria. Born in Homs, al-Siba'i came from a prominent family of `ulama'. His father's nurturance of him in Islamic learning included a strong sense of political activism that later put him on a collision course with the authorities of the French mandate. When al-Siba'i was eighteen years old, he traveled to Egypt, a country that would have a profound impact on his intellectual developm ...more

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